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I recommend you only keep the access control bar low, when needed. May 31, at 3: I have pressed Esc heaps too. May 22, at 5: We have tried to make R work on paths with spaces in, but many people writing packages for Unix do not bother.

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Working with MIDI on Windows (Outside of a DAW)

It is set by the command-line flag --max-mem-size see How do I install R for Windows? For a bit build of R it defaults to the smaller of the amount of physical RAM in the machine and 0. The limit can be raised if possible by calling memory.

The bit executables support up to 3GB of user address space per process under suitably enabled versions of bit Windows see http: On such systems, the default for --max-mem-size is the smaller of the amount of RAM and 2. On all but the earliest bit versions of Windows the user address space for a bit process is 4GB, and there the default for --max-mem-size is the smaller of the amount of RAM and 3. Create a separate shortcut for each project: Alternatively, start R by double-clicking on a saved.

RData file in the directory for the project you want to use, or drag-and-drop a file with extension. RData onto an R shortcut. In either case, the working directory will be set to that containing the file.

You can also set up a batch file using Rterm. A sample batch file might contain as one line. ESS has for a long time supported R under Windows: You can find this from R code by the call getwd. The home directory is set as follows: Otherwise if environment variable HOME is set, its value is used.

After those two user-controllable settings, R tries to find system-defined home directories. It first tries to use the Windows "personal" directory typically C: If all of these fail, the current working directory is used. You can find this from R code by Sys.

Environment variables can be set for Rgui. This is useful for variables which should be set for all users and all usages of this R installation. Their values can be overridden in a. Renviron file or on the command line. The order of precedence for environmental variables is the order in which these options are listed, that is the command line then.

Renviron then the inherited environment. How did you specify it? You can make life easier for yourself by using forward slashes as path separators: You should include the file extension e. A simple way to avoid these problems is to use the function file.

If you select a file there, the name will be passed to R in the correct format. Another possible source of grief is spaces in folder names. We have tried to make R work on paths with spaces in, but many people writing packages for Unix do not bother.

After installation you can add the Registry entries by running RSetReg. We have had several reports of this, although they do work for us on all of our machines. There are two known possible causes. This has not been reported for a few years, but used to happen regularly. This is a warning which indicates that R has taken action to correct the action of some non-R DLL which has just been loaded and has changed the floating point control word in its initialization code to a setting incompatible with that needed for R.

This is not good practice on the part of the DLL, and often indicates that it needs to be updated. Some users have found that Rgui.

This error may also happen in the middle of a session. In some cases where we have tracked this down, it was due to bugs in the video driver on the system in question: Good practice would restore the control word to the state it was in when the driver code was called, and R tries hard to correct this before running its own code. For example, one user reported that the virtual screen manager JSP2 caused this crash. These errors are essentially impossible for us to fix or work around beyond the measures already taken.

The only solution we know of is for the user to replace the buggy system component that is causing the error. What the task manager shows is not the usage in CPUs but the usage as a percentage of the apparent total number of CPUs. A few issues have been reported that are related to the way accounts and file permissions work.

These are not specifically R issues, but changes in user experiences. Earlier versions of Windows had user and Administrator accounts, and user accounts could be give administrative privileges by being added to the local Administrators group and so write permission over system areas such as c: R would be installed either by a user in his own file space or by an account with administrator privileges into a system area.

The Administrator account by default has it turned off. Unlike say Windows XP, such accounts do not run programs with full administrator privileges, and this is where the issues arise.

System administrators can disable installing applications from non-trusted sources, in which case you will have to persuade them that R is trustworthy, or digitally sign the R installer yourself, or unless this is also disabled run the installer from a standard account and install into your own file area.

The same issues apply to the. If you install R as a standard user into your own file space and use it under the same account, there are no known permission issues. You will run into problems if you try installing including updating packages in the main R library. It would be nice if at that point R could use over-the-shoulder credentials, but they apply to processes as a whole.

Vista and later disallow creating. There are several ways around this. See I don't have permission to write to the R There is a standard location for a site library, the site-library directory in the top-level R folder which you would need to create with full control for the R installation account. This will be used for installation in preference to the main library folder if it exists.

R runs correctly with DEP enabled. R may make use of directional quotes that are not always rendered correctly by Windows: There are two potential problems with rendering directional quotes.

The first is with running Rterm: The other is that the default raster fonts only include directional single quotes and not directional double quotes which will probably be rendered as a filled rectangle.

They are also used in HTML help, where most browsers use fonts which render them correctly. The font used can affect whether quotes are rendered correctly. The default font in the Rgui console and internal pager is Courier New , which has directional quotes on all the systems we tried. Lucida Console which has elegant glyphs for directional quotes but seems rather light unless ClearType is in use: Consolas is another font which we often select when ClearType is in use.

Non-TrueType fonts such as Courier and FixedSys lack directional double quotes on the systems we tried. There is a related problem with using Sweave output in Rgui , for LaTeX needs to be told about the encoding of directional quotes by including in the LaTeX preamble e.

Where tilde does not appear on the main keyboard, it can normally be accessed by pressing AltGr the right Alt key plus some other key. On all Windows versions you should be able to get tilde by holding the down the left Alt key and typing on the numeric keypad if you have one , then releasing the Alt key. The bit build of R for Windows will run on both bit and bit 2 versions of Windows. The advantage of a native bit application is that it gets a bit address space and hence can address far more than 4GB how much depends on the version of Windows, but in principle 8TB.

The disadvantages are that all the pointers are 8 rather than 4 bytes and so small objects are larger and more data has to be moved around, and that less external software is available for bit versions of the OS. The considerations can be more complex: And similarly for bit Microsoft Office. Obviously, only relevant if the machine is running a bit version of Windows — simply select both when using the installer. You can also go back and add bit components to a bit install, or vice versa.

For many Registry items, and bit programs have different views of the Registry, but clashes can occur. The most obvious problem is the file association for. RData files, which will use the last installation for which this option is selected, and if that was for an installation of both, will use bit R. The R installer does not put Rcmd. What seems to have happened is that people did this for themselves in the past, upgraded R which by default will install to a different location and un-installed the old version of R.

How you set the path depends on your OS version. System policies can prevent end users making changes. The simple way to do it just for the command prompt is to write a little batch file setpath. Apparently some users want 3 Windows in their native language, but not R. Western installations of Windows often do not have such support.

So we need to assume that your copy of Windows does. It will be necessary to select suitable fonts in files Rconsole and Rdevga see? Rconsole or the comments in the files: Note that Rdevga only applies to Windows graphics devices and not, say, to pdf. Note that it is important that the console font uses double-width characters for all CJK characters as that is what the width table used assumes: You do need to ensure that R is running in a suitable locale: You can find suitable locale names from https: When using Rterm the window in which it is run has to be set up to use a suitable font e.

Precisely, you selected English for installation! The language of the installer has nothing to do with the language used to run R: The language R uses for menus and messages is determined by the locale: Similar comments apply to any non-Western-European language.

With suitable fonts, this should just work. You will need to set MS Mincho or MS Gothic as the console font to ensure that single- and double-width characters are handled correctly.

The default graphics fonts for the windows graphics device can handle most common Japanese characters, but more specialized fonts may need to be set. The help for windowsFonts has examples of selecting Japanese fonts for the windows family of devices.

In addition, the Hershey vector fonts see? Japanese and demo Japanese can be used on any graphics device to display Japanese characters. To use non-Latin-1 characters in the postscript graphics device, see its help page which also applies to pdf.

You need to specify a font in Rconsole see Q5. This used to be a problem in earlier versions of Windows, but now it is hard to find a font which does not. Support for these characters within Rterm depends on the environment the terminal window and shell, including locale and codepage settings within which it is run as well as the font used by the terminal window.

Those are usually on legacy DOS settings and need to altered. In most cases they actually are, but by Windows. If you have Windows running completely in say French or Chinese these settings are likely to be consistent. However, if you try to run Windows in one language and R in another, you may find the way Windows handles internationalization slightly odd. You can install binary packages either from a repository such as CRAN or from a local.

There are menu items on the Packages menu to provide a point-and-click interface to package installation. The packages for each minor 3. Note that the binary versions on CRAN are unsupported: For packages with code that needs compilation you will need to collect and install several tools: To check the package including running all the examples on its help pages and in its test suite, if any use R CMD check pkgname: Note that setting up Windows to install a source package that needs compilation is rather tricky; please do ensure that you have followed the instructions exactly.

If you have a source package that is known to work on a Unix-alike system, you can try the automated Windows binary package builder documented at https: This will only be used if it exists so you may need to create it: If you use install. This will also happen if update. There can be additional security issues under Windows Vista and later: See Does R run under Windows Vista?

In particular, the detection that a standard user has suitable permissions appears to be unreliable under Vista, so we recommend that you do create a personal directory yourself.

To block on a value, use the 'await' keyword. Introduces the AsyncIterator interface, an asynchronous iteration statement for-await-of , and async generator functions. The Audio Output Devices API allows a Web application to direct audio output to authorized endpoints other than the user agent default.

Adds the ability to get information about multiple audio tracks, and switch between them using the AudioTrack. Applies a CSS filter effect to the content behind an element. This is not the element's background but the content that would be drawn behind it.

Low — We are still evaluating this technology. There may be significant spec stabilization, foundational work, or additional community input required before we can begin development. Provides an API for notifying a Service Worker that the user has come back online, or to schedule periodic events to synchronize local data with the server. Enables web applications to asynchronously transfer data from the user agent to a web server, with the user agent taking the responsibility to eventually send the data.

Blob constructor also can take ArrayBufferView directly rather than constructing a blob with ArrayBuffer. CSS properties for aligning boxes within their container. Allows for true vertical centering among other features. An origin can have multiple, named Cache objects, whose contents are entirely under the control of Service Worker scripts. Allows servers to identify resources that will not be updated during their freshness lifetime, thus, ensuring that a client never needs to revalidate a cached fresh resource to be certain it has not been modified.

Path2D objects can be used to declare paths that are then later used on CanvasRenderingContext2D objects. Add a textDecoration attribute to canvas 2D contexts, behavior similar to existing "font" attribute: Adds APIs to the canvas 2D context that make it possible to draw a focus ring around a canvas path and notify the operating system of the bounding box of the focused object for accessibility. IE currently supports a legacy model for clipboard access. The canvas 2d context has the globalCompositeOperation attribute that is used to set the current compositing and blending operator.

APIs to log messages to a connected developer tool. Allows you to create an allow list of sources of trusted content, and instructs the browser to only execute or render resources from those sources. An evolution of the Content Security Policy specification, allowing developers to create a whitelist of sources of trusted content, and instructing the browser to only execute or render resources from those sources. Development work for IE is currently for Windows Phone only.

Allows script loaded via a CSP2 nonce-based or hash-based whitelist to load other script, enabling developers and site administrators to reduce their reliance on whitelists and to tighten CSP implementations.

Allows a server to instruct the user agent to upgrade insecure requests via a Content-Security-Policy header. This directive is meant to make it even easier for a site administrator to move towards using all secure transports, while avoiding having to make massive updates to URLs in their web applications.

A primitive for isolating style, layout, and paint. This will allow web developers to opt into the various aspects of the pipeline, allowing for UA optimizations. Introduces cascading variables as a new primitive value type that is accepted by all CSS properties, and custom properties for defining them.

The viewport rule, in combination with media queries, enabled web developers to optimize the layout of sites and apps for different devices with minimal effort. It generalizes the viewport meta tag to CSS, while being much simpler to understand and without the quirks that exists with the meta tag.

The function allows filtering an CSS input image with a set of filter functions. The used filter functions are the same as for the CSS filter property.

The filter function can be animated as well. Enables responsive images in CSS by specifiying multiple resolutions of an image that the browser can select from for the given situation. Extends the CSS sizing properties with keywords that represent content-based "intrinsic" sizes and context-based "extrinsic" sizes, allowing CSS to more easily describe boxes that fit their content or fit into a particular layout context.

Support the attr function as a component value in properties applied to an element. Currently, attr is only supported in the content property applied to pseudo-elements. Introduces logical properties and values that provide the author with the ability to control layout through logical, rather than physical, direction and dimension mappings. Adds an optional argument to existing scroll APIs that specifies whether scrolling should be smooth.

Also adds a CSS property for this. Enables control of whether an element can receive input events from a pointing device using an API similar to the existing pointer-events property from SVG. Enables rich, customizable, and performant scrolling experiences like pagination of carousels by using snap points that enforce the scroll offsets that a scroll container may end at after a scrolling operation has completed.

Extends the selectors with: The tab-size property sets the size used to render tab characters in situations where white space is preserved. New CSS property to enable websites to declaratively state how touches should be handled for purposes of scrolling and zooming. This keyword effectively erases all declared values occurring earlier in the cascade, correctly inheriting or not as appropriate for the property or all longhands of a shorthand. A viewport relative length unit equal to the larger of vw viewport width or vh viewport height.

Adds a will-change CSS property, that can be used to signal that a particular property is likely to be changed in the future, or that an element's content is likely to change. Destructuring assignment allows extracting data from arrays or objects using a syntax that mirrors array and object literals. A first implementation landed in some Preview builds of Edge, but we had to pull it off due to quality issues.

Enable directory uploading by allowing a developer to read directory contents files and sub-directories asynchronously and be able to identify the directory structure. The element with "display: It's like the element has been replaced by its children and pseudo-elements.

A link relation type used to indicate an origin that will be used to fetch required resources and that the browser should resolve as early as possible. This specification addresses gaps so user agents do not have to reverse engineer encoding implementations.

Defines a common API that may be used to discover, select and interact with such systems as well as with simpler content encryption systems. Iterates over iterable objects including arrays, array-like objects, iterators and generators , invoking a custom iteration hook with statements to be executed for the value of each distinct property. Adds computed properties, concise method definitions, and short-hand for properties whose value is initialized to a same-named variable.

Extends the current implementation of the srcset attribute by adding support for the width descriptor and the sizes attribute. Also see FIDO 2. The FileReader object lets web applications asynchronously read the contents of files or raw data buffers stored on the user's computer, using File or Blob objects to specify the file or data to read.

Provides an API for finding ranges of text in a document, with a variety of selection criteria. Similar to a user-agent's find-on-page or page-search capability. A CSS box model optimized for user interface design. The children of a flex container can be laid out in any direction and can "flex" their sizes to fill unused space and avoid overflowing the parent.

Applies while an element matches the: An element also matches: Allows authors to utilize longhand properties of font-variant-caps, font-variant-ligatures, font-variant-numeric, font-variant-alternates, font-variant-east-asian, font-variant-position for font selection and adjustments rather than utilizing lower level props such as font-feature-settings. Allows multiple instances of fonts to be defined by interpolating glyph outlines along different axis. An interface for web applications to access runtime performance information of the browser event loop.

Allows authors to send a header of a whistelisted set of domains from the server to other origins from loaded or accessing the content. Programmatically instruct content on the page to be presented in the browser's full screen kiosk mode.

We are working with other browser vendors to coordinate switching to an unprefixed implementation in the future. This specification provides basic geometric interfaces to represent points, rectangles, quadrilaterals and transformation matrices that can be used by other modules or specifications. Gradients provide a method to, over a customizable amount of space, transition from one color to another.

An API for reading the system's total number of logical processors available to the user agent, up to an optional thread limit per origin. Creates a Blob object representing a file containing the image in the canvas, and invokes a callback with a handle to that object.

Exposes HTML sectioning elements such as section, article, main, etc. This can be useful when the server knows the client will need to have those responses available in order to fully process the response to the original request. Header for proactive content negotiation; just as the Accept header allowed clients to indicate what formats they prefer, Client Hints allow clients to indicate a list of device and agent specific preferences.

Expands our plugin-free adaptive video streaming to support the popular HLS protocol for transferring unbounded streams of multimedia data. Method of running external site pages with reduced privileges i.

Gives the content of an iframe as a src context to embed e. Enable a responsive images solution by providing the browser multiple resources in varying resolutions for a single image.

Extends the existing IndexedDB implementation with support for compound keys, indexed array values, and multiEntry. The inert attribute would allow web authors to mark parts of the DOM tree as inert: When a node is inert, then the user agent must act as if the node was absent for the purposes of targeting user interaction events, may ignore the node for the purposes of text search user interfaces commonly known as "find in page" , and may prevent the user from selecting text in that node.

The inputmode content attribute is an enumerated attribute that specifies what kind of input mechanism would be most helpful for users entering content into the form control. Adding support for international email addresses that use UTF-8 characters e. An interface to allow a web developer to asynchronously query the position of an element with respect to other elements or the global viewport. Adds a function-like import module loading syntactic form to JavaScript.

Enables dynamically loading parts of a JavaScript application at runtime. Provides semantic language processing for two-way communication with a remote host. This new interface creates a system-to-system forced sonic recognition on the receiving party.

A form element for a key pair generator control. Support here indicates UI for picking keys and some transport to submit them. However, significant interoperability issues exist with the DOM interfaces and protocols for this feature. Math related functions - sign, trunc, sinh, cosh, tanh, asinh, acosh, atanh, log10, log2, hypot, fround, clz32, cbrt, log1p, expm1. An application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content.

Allows to query the presence and accuracy of the user's pointing input e. Additionally, allows the page to query whether the user's pointing input supports hover. Used to detect if the user has requested the system minimize the amount of animation or motion it uses. Enable websites to customize media metadata so they can control the notification and lock screen UI. Also, allow them to control media in the page from outside the page, such as platform UIs and media keys.

A messaging system that allows documents to communicate with each other regardless of their source domain, in a way designed to avoid cross-site scripting attacks.

Using the referrer metadata attribute, a document can control the behavior of the Referer HTTP header attached to requests that originate from the document. The HTML meter element allows representation of a scalar measurement of a known range, or fractional value, i. Distinct from the progress element. This specification defines an interface to store and retrieve error data related to the previous navigations of a document. Introduces analogous rest properties for object destructuring assignment and spread properties for object literals.

Unhandled exceptions trigger the 'window. The 5th parameter will have the exception itself. Provides an API to ask whether the current tab is visible or not. If so, you might want to throttle back action or set an idle state.

Provides an API to mark event listeners as "passive", primarily to allow for scrolling performance improvements. A web API to allow merchants i. An interface to observe the performance timeline https: Enable a responsive images solution by declaring multiple resources for an image using CSS media queries. An API for allowing websites to create a floating video window always on top of other windows so that users may continue consuming media while they interact with other content sites, or applications on their device.

The Platform for Privacy Preferences Project P3P enables web sites to express their privacy practices in a standard format allowing user agents to automate decision-making based on these practices when appropriate. Unified pointer input API e. Gives access to raw mouse movement, locks the target of mouse events to a single element, eliminates limits of how far mouse movement can go in a single direction, and removes the cursor from view.

Obvious use cases are for first person or real time strategy games. The difference is that a stickily positioned element behaves like position: A link relation type used to indicate an origin that will be used to fetch required resources, so the browser can open a connection early for resouces that will be required later in the loading process.

A keyword that may be used with "link" elements which provides a declarative fetch primitive that initiates an early fetch and separates fetching from resoruce execution. Provides a hint to the browser that another page is likely to be loaded by the user such as the first result of a search such that it may be prerendered for better performance. Registers a callback to be invoked when a promise is settled whether it is fulfilled or rejected , allowing for cleanup of pending or ongoing actions depending on that promise.

Allows easier and cleaner asynchronous coding. Adds the Promise constructor, along with the 'all' and 'race' utility methods to the language itself. Certificate public key pinning is a mechanism which allows specifying a key that must be present in the certificate chain associated with a domain name.

In this method, site owner defines pin rules for his domain name via HTTP header. This mechanism assumes that user has had a first clean connection to the site. Provides methods for use in operations that are intercepted. Reflect methods are often used with proxies because they allow you to delegate to default behavior without implementing the default behavior in your code.

Offload animation repainting to browser for optimized performance. You should call this method whenever you're ready to update your animation onscreen. This will request that your animation function be called before the browser performs the next repaint. Allows developers to cooperatively schedule background tasks to avoid introducing delays with high priority tasks in the same event loop.

Allows a web developer to attach an observer to an element and a callback will be fired when that element is resized. Defines a SameSite attribute, allowing a server to specify that cookies should not be sent with cross-site requests.

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