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Interscorer reliability by experts was generally. January 18, at 3: May 29, at 3: Airframe information is entered into the Airframe section of the MotoCalc Workbench window. Convergent Validity was established by examining the subtest inter-correlations.

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That ranks Germany 34th in the world, just ahead of Serbia and Italy, for average mobile download speed. Though average mobile upload speed increased Germany ranks 62nd in the world for mobile upload speed, just behind Panama, Ireland and the United States. German mobile providers offer fairly equal speeds across all major cities. Berlin, the capital, has an average download speed of Only four major cities have faster download speeds: Of these four, the difference is not more than 5 Mbps.

In Q4 , German mobile penetration was at As a result of the acquisition, three major providers now dominate the German mobile market. O2 has overtaken incumbent Telekom, and as of Q3 has the highest market share in the mobile market with In third place is Vodafone with The European Commission EC has been putting pressure on the German regulator, Bundesnetzagentur, to amend its current calculations for fixed termination rates.

Overall bids were low, the only three bidders paid a mere fraction per MHz per unit of population compared to US benchmarks. By mandate, high-speed railways and national motorways will also have mobile coverage. Telekom is the top provider for downloads in Q2-Q3 Telekom offers mobile speeds of 1 Mbps, 3 Mbps, 6 Mbps and 10 Mbps.

Telekom is also the top provider for uploads in Q2-Q3 The company has substantial holdings in other telecom companies around the globe, including a majority stake in T-Mobile US that it has twice attempted to sell in the past five years. Mobile speeds for modern devices in Germany are increasing steadily. The fastest mobile carrier for both downloads and uploads was Telekom with average Q2-Q3 speeds of Telekom is undoubtedly the German leader in mobile speeds nationwide.

In Q2-Q3 , the mobile carrier provided speeds of over Mbps to more than 10 cities. This allows customers to make and receive calls over Wi-Fi where they previously may have been unable to due to bad reception. A speed of 1.

Telefonica also worked in cooperation with Huawei to launch a pilot 4. In July , the first live trial of 4. Vodafone is also advancing towards faster speed via carrier aggregation, combining MHz, MHz and MHz bands. In the coming months, the company will be expanding this technology to more cities across the country.

The German government has plans for nationwide 5G by , with gigabit coverage by In November , partners from 5-G Crosshaul, an EU initiative, successfully completed a 5G-crosshaul test in Berlin that reached speeds of over 1. The test will help advance Germany towards a 5G network. This ensures we provide an accurate view of the typical performance a user can achieve using a modern smartphone or tablet on a given mobile network.

For ducted fan projects only, fields labeled in green are stored as part of the Airframe component, even though some of these fields appear in the Drive System section. For example, Intake Diameter , although relevant to a fan drive system, is an attribute of the airframe in which the fan is installed.

The steps to making a performance prediction are: Specify the motor characteristics or select a motor from MotoCalc's extensive database. Specify the cell characteristics or choose a cell type from MotoCalc's database. Indicate the range of cell counts you're interested in for instance, 7 to 10 cells. Specify the range of gear ratios you're interested in or select a drive system from MotoCalc's database. Specify the range of propeller pitches and diameters you're interested in.

Specify the characteristics of the speed control or select from MotoCalc's database. Specify the airframe characteristics or select from the database. Specify any restrictions you want such as maximum current. Press the Compute Report This will produce a report in a new window, giving the predictions for each combination of cell count, gear ratio, propeller diameter, and propeller pitch. You can sort this report by any column just by clicking on the column heading. Each time you press the Compute Report MotoCalc can display as many simultaneous report windows as the memory on your computer will allow.

This makes it easy to produce predictions for several different combinations of components, and compare them side by side assuming your screen is sufficiently large. MotoCalc uses this information to determine how the motor will perform under different loads at various speeds. This is the core of MotoCalc's predictions, so it is important to get accurate motor information. Selecting a Motor from the Database If the motor you are interested in is a commonly available one, it is probably already included in MotoCalc's extensive database.

To select a motor from the database, click the Open button in the Motor section or the Open Once you've selected a motor, the motor characteristics will automatically be filled into the appropriate fields. Refer to Using the Database Browsers for more information. Specifying Motor Characteristics If the motor you are interested in is not in MotoCalc's database, you can enter the motor characteristics yourself.

If you have this information about a motor, you can enter it directly. If you do not have this information, you can either perform some tests and enter the information into the Test Data Input window, or see if you have enough other information to fill in the Catalog Data Input window.

Motor Name The Motor field is used to give a name to a motor. This name will appear on the performance report, and this name is also used to refer to the motor in the database; no two motors can have the same name.

A motor name can have up to 40 characters. This information is usually available from the manufacturer of the motor. The motor constant must be specified. No-load Current The no-load current is the current, in Amps, consumed by the motor when it is free-running. The no-load current must be specified. Resistance This is the armature resistance, in Ohms, of the motor. The armature resistance must be specified. Weight The weight of the motor, in ounces or grams.

This information is used by MotoCalc when computing total aircraft weight, and in determining the ability of the motor to dissipate heat. Brushless Motor This check box indicates whether or not the motor is brushless. The MotoWizard uses this information to narrow down motor choices, and the MotOpinion report uses this to ensure you've selected the right kind of speed control.

Out-runner This check box indicates whether or not the motor is an out-runner brushless motor also known as rotating can or washing machine. This information is relevant in the calculation of motor heating out-runner motors don't have the heat dissipation ability of ordinary brushless motors , and in limiting RPM in the MotoWizard. Clearing the Motor Fields The New button in the Motor section or the New item on the Motor menu clears all the motor information fields they're all set back to blank.

Adding a Motor to the Database Once you've computed or entered the characteristics of a motor, you may want to save it for future reference. To do this, simply make sure that you've entered a unique name for the motor, and click the Save button in the Motor section or the Save item on the Motor menu. If you Open an existing motor, change the characteristics, and Save it again without first changing the name, the new characteristics will replace the existing ones for that motor.

Don't do this unless you're sure that that's what you want to do. Measuring Motor Parameters There are number of ways to determine the parameters for a motor, including deriving them from motor tests , or computing them from values published in catalogs , or from the constants of a known motor.

However, the probably the best way is to measure the constants directly, which can be done as described below follow the instructions in the section for the appropriate type of motor: Brushed Motors Measuring the Motor Constant This can be determined by chucking the motor shaft into a drill press or some other drill with an exactly known RPM. If the motor has adjustable timing, set it to neutral first.

Connect a volt meter across the motor terminals, and run the drill while holding the motor be careful; if the motor is not chucked in straight, it will wobble violently. Measuring the No-load Current Connect the motor to a variable power supply, with an ammeter in series with one of the leads.

Slowly increase the voltage. You will notice the current go up, and then start to level off at some point. This is the no-load current. This depends on the timing of the motor, and should also be measured at neutral timing.

Measuring the Armature Resistance Connect the motor to a variable voltage power supply, with an ammeter in series with one of the leads, and a voltmeter across the motor terminals. Keep the motor shaft from turning by holding it with pliers or clamping it in a vice. Slowly increase the voltage until the current reaches 5A or so or half the rated safe operating current of the motor, whichever is less.

Divide the measured motor terminal voltage by the measured current to get the armature resistance. However, a brushless motor does not produce a DC voltage on its terminals. Instead, it produces a three-phase AC voltage. To measure this requires a three-phase full-wave rectifier, which can be constructed from six 1N diodes, a 47 kOhm resistor, and a 0.

The diagram below is a schematic of such a circuit: The three input terminals of the rectifier should be connected to the motor, and the output terminals to a DC voltmeter.

Run the drill while holding the motor be careful; if the motor is not chucked in straight, it will wobble violently. Measure the voltage, and add a correction factor to account for the voltage loss in the diodes see below.

To calculate the diode voltage loss, connect an approximately 3V DC power source for example, two AA alkaline cells wired in series to any two of the three input terminals of the rectifier without the motor connected. Measure the voltage at the two input terminals, and again at the two output terminals, using a digital voltmeter.

The difference between these two voltages is the required correction factor. Measuring the No-load Current Unlike a brushed motor, a brushless motor's no-load operating current can't be measured without using a speed control.

Connect a battery, appropriate brushless speed control, a receiver or a servo tester and the motor as you would in an aircraft, except connect an ammeter in series with one of the battery leads. Do not install a propeller on the motor. Turn everything on, and slowly increase the throttle.

The current will start to rise, and eventually level off. Different speed controls have different internal resistances, and operate the motor with differing timing, so if possible, test with more than one speed control and take an average of the readings.

Also, be sure the speed controls are set to their most conservative timing modes i. Do not use full throttle. Be careful not to run the motor beyond its rated maximum RPM, or you may damage the motor.

Measuring the Armature Resistance Connect two terminals of the motor to a variable voltage power supply, with an ammeter in series with one of the leads, and a voltmeter across the two motor terminals. Leave the third motor terminal unconnected. Divide the measured voltage by the measured current, and then multiply that by 0. Entering Motor Data from Tests If you have the equipment necessary to measure motor terminal voltage, current, and RPM, or you have published test data containing this information, you can use the Test Data Input window to automatically compute the motor parameters and fill them into the Motor section of the MotoCalc Workbench window.

The Test Data Input window will appear. You need to have test results from two different motor runs: One free running i. One at the best efficiency point and one other. For each run, you need the following data: Terminal Voltage - the voltage at the motor terminals. Current - the current through the motor or any part of the circuit.

RPM - the rate at which the motor is turning. It is important that all three measurements for a given motor run be taken simultaneously, because they can change over time due to motor heating, the battery running down, etc.

The three measurements must correspond to one another. Once you have entered a set of measurements into the Test Data Input window, click OK to compute the motor characteristics, automatically fill them into the Motor section of the MotoCalc Workbench window, and close the Test Data Input window.

If you want to experiment with different sets of measurements, you can click Apply instead. This does the same thing, but the Test Data Input window remains open. If the message " Warning! Data Points Too Close " appears in the Test Data Input window, it means you have taken measurements that are too similar to one another to compute accurate motor characteristics from. You may also see the message " Error!

Inconsistent Data ", which indicates that the input data is implausible. This generally occurs when the test data points are too close, and the errors inherent in taking measurements throw the data off enough to result in an impossible situation such as a negative armature resistance or motor constant.

To avoid either of these messages and get meaningful results , it is best to have test data points that are widely separated in at least two of the three parameters Voltage, Current, and RPM. Entering Motor Data from a Catalog If all you have available to you is the data from a manufacturer's or mail order company's catalog, you may still have the information that MotoCalc needs to determine the motor characteristics. The Catalog Data Input window is designed to make sense of this information.

The Catalog Data Input window will appear. There are four pieces of information that you need to find out from the catalog. The first two are: Nominal Voltage - the voltage that the motor was intended for. Any two of the following are required: Current at Maximum Efficiency - the current, in Amps, at which the motor is most efficient. Stall Current - the current, in Amps, that the motor draws if the armature is prevented from turning when being fed the Nominal Voltage.

No-load Current - the current, in Amps, that the motor draws at the Nominal Voltage when there is no load on the motor shaft. As you fill in these fields, MotoCalc will calculate the motor characteristics as soon as it has enough information for each one.

The grayed-out fields of the Catalog Data window show the computed characteristics as they are being calculated. Note that as soon as you type values into two of the three current fields, the third becomes Grey, because it is now being calculated by MotoCalc instead of filled in by you.

For those of you who are mathematically inclined, the relationship between No-load Current, Maximum Efficiency Current, and Stall Current is: Note that data from a catalog can be notoriously inaccurate. See the Caveats section for more details. This does the same thing, but the Catalog Data Input window remains open. Using the Motor Designer If you are in the habit of winding or rewinding your own motors, or you have a motor for which you don't know the motor parameters, and also have a similar motor with a different number of winds for which you do know the parameters, MotoCalc's motor designer will let you estimate the parameters based on a known motor and the change in windings.

The Motor Designer window will appear. The top left pane of the Motor Designer is where you specify the known Baseline Motor. The fields here are identical to those in the Motor section of the MotoCalc Workbench window. The Open button can be used to select a motor from the database. The lower left pane is where you specify information about the Baseline Motor Windings: Turns per Pole - the number of turns of wire around each pole of the motor's armature or stator in the case of a brushless motor.

Wire Gauge - the size of wire AWG used to wind the armature or stator. If your baseline motor is a multi-wind motor i. The lower right pane is where you specify the corresponding information about the New Motor Windings.

If you've specified a wire gauge for the baseline motor, MotoCalc will recommend a wire gauge for the new motor, based on the ratio of turns per pole. If you leave the new motor's wire gauge field blank, the recommended gauge will be used in the calculations.

The upper right pane is where the computed parameters of the Motor to Build will appear. The Motor field can be filled in with the name you wish to give the new motor.

MotoCalc uses a very simple model to compute the effect of varying the number of turns in a motor. The further that the number of turns deviates from the baseline motor, the less accurate the prediction will be. If the ratio of turns between the new motor and baseline motor is too high for the prediction to be usefully accurate, you will see the message " Warning!

High Turns Ratio " in the Motor to Build pane. In order for the predictions to be valid at all, the baseline and new motors must be identical except for the number of turns and the wire gauge. They must be of the same size, shape, and construction, and have the same kind of magnets. If you are rewinding an existing motor, this will obviously be the case. Once you have entered a set of parameters into the Motor Designer window, click OK to automatically fill them into the Motor section of the MotoCalc Workbench window, and close the Motor Designer window.

This does the same thing, but the Motor Designer window remains open. The characteristics of the cells within the battery affect the amount of current the cells can deliver, how long they can deliver it for, and how much voltage is lost internally. The number of cells in the battery defines the maximum voltage that can be delivered assumed to be 1.

By experimenting with different cell types, one can see what effects the different characteristics of a cell have. Selecting a Cell Type from the Database If the battery you are interested in is built from commonly available cells, these cells are probably already included in MotoCalc's database. To select a cell type from the database, click the Open button in the Battery section or the Open Once you've selected a cell type, the cell characteristics will automatically be filled into the appropriate fields.

Specifying Cell Characteristics If your battery is composed of cells that are not in MotoCalc's database, you can enter the cell characteristics yourself. The two pieces of information that MotoCalc needs are the cell's capacity, and the cell's internal resistance. Cell The Cell field is used to give a name to a cell type.

This name will appear on the performance report, and this name is also used to refer to the cell type in the database; no two cell types can have the same name. A cell type name can have up to 40 characters.

C Rating This unlabeled field appears just to the right of the cell name field described above and specifies the cell's "C" rating if known. The "C" rating, multiplied by the cell capacity in Ah or mAh , gives the maximum current in A or mA respectively that the cell is able to deliver without damage. For example, a mAh cell with a "C" rating of 20 can deliver mA or 46A. MotoCalc uses the "C" rating for a number of things. Filtering - if the Use Filter checkbox is checked, power system combinations that exceed the maximum current allowed by the cells are filtered out if the "C" rating is known.

MotoWizard - the MotoWizard will not suggest any power system combinations that cause the "C" rating to be exceeded. If you specified a specific cell type in the MotoWizard's Battery page and the "C" rating is not known, it will estimate a "C" rating based on the cell's internal resistance and weight.

MotOpinion - the MotOpinion report will warn you if the "C" rating is exceeded if the "C" rating is known. Note that the "C" rating is not known for all types of cells the concept really only came into common use with the introduction of Lithium-Polymer cells.

Cell Capacity This is the capacity of the cell, in mAh milliAmp-hours. This information is usually written on the cell, or on the battery shrink-wrap. If no cell capacity is specified, mAh is assumed. Cell Voltage This is the voltage of the cell, in V Volts. Rechargeable Lithium cells have a nominal voltage of 3. Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Polymer cells are 3.

If you leave this field blank, MotoCalc looks in the cell Chemistry field, and uses the appropriate voltage. In fact, if the Chemistry field is filled in, the voltage field turns gray and cannot be edited. Cell Impedance This is the internal resistance of the cell, in Ohms. This information is generally not included on either the cell or the battery shrink-wrap, and it requires rather sophisticated techniques to measure accurately.

If you do not know this value, you'll have to guess. This value is generally around 0. Generally, the fatter a cell is, the lower is its resistance. If no cell impedance is specified, 0. Cell Weight The weight of an individual cell, in ounces or grams. This information is used by MotoCalc when computing total aircraft weight. If no cell weight is specified, 1. If the cell is of some other chemistry, this field can be left blank, and the appropriate voltage should be filled into the Voltage field.

Clearing the Battery Fields The New button in the Battery section or the New item on the Battery menu clears all the battery information fields they're all set back to blank. Specifying the Cell Count There are two fields for specifying the cell count specifically, the number of cells wired in series.

The first specifies the minimum number of cells, and the second specifies the maximum number of cells. When MotoCalc produces its report, it will make predictions for each cell count in the range.

If no number is specified as a minimum, 7 is assumed. If no number is specified as a maximum, the number specified for the minimum is assumed.

The series cell counts are not stored in the database's cell table, since the number of cells you'll want to use is independent of the characteristics of the individual cells. Instead, this information is stored with the project.

Parallel Cells With the increasing use of Lithium-Polymer cells for electric flight, and their relatively low current capability compared to NiCd cells, the practice of wiring one or more battery packs in parallel is becoming common this is not a good idea to do with NiCd or NiMH packs. The Parallel Cells fields are used to indicate the number of paralleled battery packs or potentially, the number of paralleled cells within a pack if it is so constructed; electrically the two are equivalent.

If no numbers are specified, a single non-paralleled battery is assumed. As with the Series Cells fields, there are two fields for paralleled cells. The first specifies the minimum number, and the second specifies the maximum. MotoCalc will make predictions for each number in the range. If no number is specified for the minimum, 1 is assumed. If the maximum is omitted, it is assumed to be the same as the minimum.

If you make use of the Wiring Wizard , the Parallel Cells fields are filled in for you automatically when you exit from the Wizard window. This information is stored with the project. Adding a Cell Type to the Database Once you've entered the characteristics of a cell, you may want to save it for future reference. To do this, simply make sure that you've entered a unique name for the cell type, and click the Save button in the Battery section or the Save item on the Battery menu.

If you Open an existing cell type, change the characteristics, and Save it again without first changing the name, the new characteristics will replace the existing ones for that cell type.

Cell impedance internal resistance on the other hand is not always published. To determine the impedance of a cell, fully charge a battery pack using your normal charger.

Then, run it about half way down perhaps by flying a shorter-than-usual flight with it, or using a discharger. Next, prepare two loads with differing resistances for packs of 6 to 10 cells, three or five automotive light bulbs wired in parallel make suitable loads.

Measure both the current I1 and I2 and the voltage V1 and V2 with the battery connected to each load in turn one of the many brands of hobbyist watt-meters this easy. The battery's impedance, R, is then given by the formula: In other words, the difference in the voltages divided by the difference in the currents. Divide this by the number of cells in the battery to determine the impedance for a single cell. Be sure to use high quality connectors for these tests, or the connection resistance will introduce significant errors into the result.

Specifying a Drive System The choice of gear ratio and propeller size, or ducted fan unit, is probably the largest factor influencing the performance of an electric flight system.

Unlike those messy glow motors, which work best with a propeller or fan of a given size, the optimal propeller or fan size for an electric motor depends on the voltage at which it is run, and the amount of current we're willing to supply.

Gear and propeller or fan information is entered into the Drive System section of the MotoCalc Workbench window. To select a drive system from the database, select the appropriate drive system type propeller or ducted fan, see below and click the Open button in the Drive System section or the Open Once you've selected a drive system, the system characteristics will automatically be filled into the appropriate fields.

The drive system information required depends on the type of drive system. For propeller drive systems, you can specify any combination of gear ratio and propeller sizes you wish. For ducted fan drive systems, you can specify the characteristics of the fan rotor, the hub, the intake and exhaust ducting, and a fan efficiency factor.

Drive System Description The Description field is used to give a name to a drive system. This name will appear on the performance report, and this name is also used to refer to the drive system in the database; no two drive systems can have the same name.

A drive system description can have up to 40 characters. They are used to select the drive system type. When you click on one of these, the appropriate set of drive system parameter fields is displayed. You can also switch between propeller and fan drive systems using the Propeller and Ducted Fan items on the Drive System menu.

The drive system type propeller vs. Therefore, this information is stored as part of the current project. This generally varies from about 1. If you are not using a gearbox, use a ratio of 1. If left blank, 1. You can specify a whole range of ratios, and the increment you want to use. For example, you can specify 2. If you only want to specify a single ratio, leave the to and by fields blank, or enter the same values for both ends of the range, and enter 1 for the increment.

The word " to " between the fields refers to the range, as in "from It does not refer to the ratio as in "3 to 1", more commonly written "3: Gearbox Efficiency propeller only The approximate efficiency of the gearbox, expressed as a percentage. This is the fraction of motor shaft power reaching the propeller shaft. The remainder generally a few percent is lost in the gearbox in the form of heat and noise.

There is little published data on gearbox efficiency, so for most gearboxes, this is an estimate. The Gearbox Effic field has a drop-down list which will yield typical efficiencies for various types of gearboxes. If you don't know the actual efficiency of a particular gearbox, select the appropriate type from this list.

If you leave this field blank, the default gearbox efficiency value specified in the Options window is assumed. Gearbox Weight propeller only The weight of the gearbox, in ounces or grams. If no gearbox weight is specified, MotoCalc does not add the weight of the gearbox into the total aircraft weight.

If the gear ratio is 1: Propeller Diameter This is the diameter of the propeller, in inches or centimetres. You can specify a range of diameters you wish to try, and the increment you want to use.

For example, you can specify 10 to 13 by 1. If you only want to specify a single diameter, only enter a value into the first field, or enter the same values for both ends of the range, and enter 1 for the increment. Propeller Pitch This is the pitch of the propeller, which is defined as the distance the propeller would move forward if turned one revolution into a solid material. You can specify a range of pitches you wish to try, and the increment you want to use.

For example, you can specify 5 to 6 by 0. If you only want to specify a single pitch, only enter a value into the first field, or enter the same values for both ends of the range, and enter 1 for the increment. Note that the total number of propellers that will be tried is equal to the number diameters times the number of pitches. For example, if you specified 10 to 13 by 1.

If you are trying a very wide range of propellers e. Power Constant propeller only This specifies a fudge factor used in computing the power absorbed by a propeller. You can either type in a power constant, or select a propeller brand from the drop-down list by clicking on the downward-pointing arrow next to the field. Power constants tend to vary somewhat from one propeller to the next in the same series, so the values provided are averages.

The cause of the variation is generally the propeller's pitch, which often is not exactly the value stamped on the propeller. However, using an average propeller constant for a series of propellers will still produce acceptable accuracy. If you do not know the power constant for the propeller you intend to use, either select a similar propeller from the list, or click the Const The power constant for the Rev Up propellers depends on the pitch, so MotoCalc cannot compute the constant unless you have specified the pitch.

Furthermore, if you've specified a range of pitches, MotoCalc will warn you, and will compute the power constant based on the average pitch. Therefore, you will get better results with Rev Up propellers if you only select a single pitch and its corresponding constant at a time. If you leave this value blank, a default of 1. Thrust Constant propeller only This specifies the efficiency of the propeller at producing thrust. It is not an absolute efficiency, but merely a measure relative to other propellers.

You can either type in a thrust constant, or select a propeller brand from the drop-down list by clicking on the downward-pointing arrow next to the field. If you do not know the thrust constant for the propeller you intend to use, either select a similar propeller from the list, or click the Const If you leave this field blank, a default of 0. Num Blades propeller only This specifies the number of blades on each propeller. If you leave this blank, a standard two-bladed propeller is assumed.

Num Props propeller only This field is used to specify the number of propellers used on the aircraft. If no number is specified, one propeller per motor is assumed see Motors - Series and Parallel below. The number of propellers can be either more than, less than, or the same as the number of motors. If more, then the number of propellers must be a multiple of the number of motors. If less, the number of motors must be a multiple of the number of propellers.

If there are more propellers than motors, it is assumed that each motor is driving more than one propeller most likely through some sort of belt drive. If there are fewer propellers than motors, several motors are driving a single propeller through a gear or belt arrangement.

The number of propellers is not stored in the database's drive system table. Instead, this information is stored with the aircraft project.

Fan Diameter This specifies the diameter of the fan rotor. Fan Pitch This specifies the pitch of the fan, which is defined as the distance the fan would move forward if turned one revolution into a solid material. You can use the Fan Pitch Measurements window to compute the pitch from measurements, or you can use the Fan Coefficient Estimator window to estimate the pitch, thrust coefficient , and power coefficient all at once.

The latter is preferable, because it will compute a pitch and coefficients which are consistent with actual test results, and hence produce more accurate performance predictions. Fan Weight ducted fan only The weight of the fan unit not including the motor , in ounces or grams. If no fan weight is specified, MotoCalc does not add the weight of the fan unit into the total aircraft weight. Hub Diameter ducted fan only This specifies the diameter of the fan hub and motor. Result is presented in miliseconds.

The lower result is better. Second and third steps are bandwidth measurements - Download and Upload, respectively. The higher result is better. See also how does the speed test work.

Make sure that your local connection to a home router edge of your local network is possibly the highest. You need to connect to the network using a cable. Check if nobody and nothing is using your connection. When other user runs a torrent client for downloading files the results will be probably wrong.

The last one is widely used in the IT world i. Hashrate means how many encrypted strings can be calculated in a second by your hardware. There are some important things. No other aplications should be opened so please close everything except your browser. Finally adjust your system power scheme to be in "full power" to achieve maximum that your hardware can do.

If you are working on notebook, connect the power adaptor. The filesystem is the methods and data structures used by the operating system used to store information about files and their contents on the partition.

It is a way of organizing files on disk.

Update in 2016: