Why Jews Don't Believe In Jesus

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I know it to be the truth. Two years ago, I registered in a college online, because I did not have time to go to school on campus. The only college I found that had good reviews, where I can get my entire degree online, was a Christian University. I was told that I would be required to take one class about Christianity, and I am in the middle of it right now. I was interested in the beginning to read more about what Christians think, and how their religion works, but now I cannot wait until it is over.

The more I read, the less sense it makes. It boggles my mind and I am not trying to offend any Christian out there how this religion ever took off. The only good thing I can say about how Christianity works is that Christians also believe in the Ten Commandments, and have similar morals to Jews.

Anonymous , February 12, 1: The reason Christianity took off was that it was supported by military force- first the Roman empire, then various European kingdoms that succeeded the Roman empire. Trey Haydon , April 20, 2: I would disagree that "the reason Christianity took off was that it was supported by military force. Anonymous , July 30, 6: Your whole articles were offensive to me.

Stop spreading lies like a plague. Don't lead more people to hell behind you!!! Anonymous , August 9, 8: I grew up Christian and yes it is very confusing even to Christians. There are many aspects of the Bible that contradicts itself and yes we do notice that. Even to the Priests and Pastors it's confusing and questioning them makes them very defensive and I must say a little angry.

If you have questions that they can't answer they immediately tell you that Satan is the one putting these evil thoughts of doubt in our heads. We're told to forget those questions and pray. I'm no longer Christian now that I know that Christianity says that to be a true Christian you must believe that Jesus was born of a virgin and rose from the dead and accepting Jesus as the son of God is the only way into the Kingdom of Heaven when we die. That no matter the sins you committed or the way you live your entire life as long as you accept Jesus as the Messiah and son of God before you die then your soul will be saved.

They say that Jesus will be the first we'll meet when we die and basically if we deny him he'll deny us to the Father. To me that puts Jesus before God which is against our very first commandment. It does not feel right. I have never had any christian be able to help me this question. That's why I'm seeking knowledge of another faith.

I know that Christianity was derived from Judaism. They openly teach that Jesus was Jewish himself. I absolutely love the fact that Judaism teaches to ask questions. Where would we be as a human race if we didn't question to find truth? Don't feel alone in your confusion we're all confused to, and ask your instructor anything you may be confused about.

I'd love to be a fly on the wall in that conversation. Coming from a family background of preachers three generations , I was raised with a very, very strong Christian background. The turning point for me was to learn that the all that was written about Jesus was done no less than 75 to years after He died.

That made me question the accuracy of what was written about Jesus. How could the quotes attributed to Jesus be accurate if the authors of "His words" were not present when he spoke?! Thus, how accurate is the New Testament? Realizing that we, as Christians, are taking one person's word Jesus' on what revelations were said to Him shatters the foundation of the Christian "faith. I'll take a National revelation Judaism over one person's revelation for the truth!

I was raised Catholic and always wondered about the question we're all here wondering about. This page made so much sense its rattled me a lot!

If there is anymore information I can get that is this straight forward please let me know. I think I should be a Jew! Seriously this has made me open my eyes to the world. I will no longer be led blindly and believe what I'm told to just because I'm told to!!! Steph-M , December 30, 6: Talk to a rabbi if you want guidance.

I was raised Christian too, but I left because I am tired of getting the wool pulled over my eyes by people who can't even read the Jewish bible. Pieter , January 6, 2: I agree , it is the best to see a Rav. You can also visit Rabbi Tovia Singer. My wife and I dared to stand back and question the christion religion we were brought up in 66yrs. We are now converting to Judaism. Hans Schmidt , July 30, 6: The Jews murdered Jesus is that ok?

For all you confused people out there don't listen to this propaganda! They made a mistake and crucified Gods earthly form! That is why they denounce Him! To the people writing this article million will wake up in hell because of false teachings!

Shoshana-Jerusalem , August 16, 3: The Romans murdered J. The present pope as well as the previous one, acknowledged this and removed the claim of "diocide" from the Jews. Anyway, G-d is eternal, so how could he be killed? I grew up in a seventh day adventist house hold. My parents always lead me to follow all of Gods 10 commandments. Because they are His will and if we love God with all our hearts than we should keep His commandments.

I have always struggled with the idea of jesus. And have always thought to myself We have all been in anticipation for the "return" of Gods son, but in fact he was really just a false prophet. With all good intentions like he seemed to have all the people followed. And now we've all been decieved.

We are all awaiting an apocalypse We are allowing them to enslave us. I took the best lessons from their teachings as in loving everyone, no matter what they believe or what their social status and i also have read about muslim, jewish, and morman beliefs. I had a lot of questions going into this page. It is very well written and easy for anyone who reads it to grasp.

I definitely have a lot to think over now. But i was always worried about the jesus question. Lets say he is the son of god.. But if not, and he is a false prophet.. Would i be damned to hell for following something i have been taught since birth?

As i only want to please god. This page was an eye opener. But it raised a lot of questions for me. I am terrified i will be punished for making the wrong choice. I always held god on top in my beliefs.. But i dont know when or if i can return to this page. Somebody please help me out. I just want to do what i should be doing. Thank you for reading this long comment.

And i hope to get an educated individual on the subject to bombard with questions. As if i feel by the end of it that jewish beliefs are the right way to go.. If not, then i suppose i will continue my search for "my" truth.

Patience would be appreciated. And no, i am not the biased, finger pointing christian archetype. I am very open to new ideas. Dvirah , December 23, 5: There is another very fundamental reason why Jews don't "believe in" Jesus. This is because at the heart of Judaism lies our relationship with G-d, and how can one have a relationship with an entity that one never directly confronts?

Now along someone comes and tells you that for whatever reason, you can no longer speak directly to your parent but must approach your parent only via a third party intermediary - even as that very morning you and your parent spoke as usual.

Surely your reaction would be to laugh in that someone's face at such a ridiculous contention? Direct relationship is what it's all about. Anonymous , January 13, 4: It is important to note I think, that Moses, the greatest prophet of all, never told the Jews to follow him or to pray to him, but only to G-d.

He never portrayed himself as a god. On the contrary, the Torah calls him 'servant of G-d' the greatest of compliments as well as 'the humblest man that ever lived'. Troy , January 18, 2: God loves all of us.

Does it really matter which road you take to be with him? No i dont t think so. Love each other love GOD He loves you. Lawrence , October 6, 3: That really does put a whole new light on what I've been taught as a Christian. I shall continue to search for the real truth: I am grateful for a succinct and forceful exposition. It will indeed be helpful to answer my Christian friends with courtesy.

I reposted this article to my Facebook wall, where I have a wide group of friends, from evangelical Christians to Jews who reject religion and adopt a secular humanist approach. This article sparked a really interesting conversation. I am a "reform" Jew by political leaning, although more traditional in my ritual leanings e.

I don't think it matters very much whether you can or cannot prove any religion is "true. We are a varied people living on this planet, and we all need some moral rod to grasp.

Wherever you find it, there you are! Any of these paths is better than being morally path-less. I have to say though, my grandparents were from a place and time where they did not question their Judaism because culture isolated them for it politically, and there was no denying it or getting away from it.

Because of that, they did not realize they would need to teach their children "why" Judaism matters. Still not sure how all that will play out for them, but at least I made the effort. Thank you for this explanation which has helped me understand many questions I have had mainly due to my curiosity of belief systems.

I was raised as a very strict catholic but at the age of 35 became a Buddhist. I am very interested in people in general and believe that basicly it does not matter what your belief system is as long as you live a "clean" life. Not hurting, harming your fellow man and treating everyone as equal.

All good religions are right in their own way. Anywhere a group of people can live freely and as one without hatred and sin, I feel that this is right. No-one should be condemned by others if their existance is peaceful and their actions harmless. We should all be working towards world peace for all living beings no matter what their orientation. Each person has to deal with their consciousness, and if they are happy with themselves so let it be.

It is not up to us to judge another persons "soul". This is great information and has answered my questions fully. I was raised a Christian, and this question has at times entered my mind; not because I think it's odd that Jews don't believe in Jesus, but it had always perked my curiosity considered Jesus was present there. The reasons in this article make a lot of sense, and I'd like to think these reasons would make sense to all other Christians, too.

I've always loved branching out to learn and understand the many religious views present in the world. Being single minded and ignoring all but your own seems like a sad way to be. Just because you understand another religion or culture doesn't mean you have to believe and follow it, after all. Why Jews shouldn't believe in Jesus? Why no one should believe in Jesus! There's sufficient doubt, as reflected by our Talmudic era Rabbis, that Jesus never existed, so what is evident, is that hundreds of millions of people believe in smoke and mirrors; a religion created hundreds of years after Jesus purportedly lived and died, but witnessed by no one.

No one knows for certain his day of birth and no one knows exactly when he died. Early Christians mixed their fading Judaism with Paganism and by the time they arrived in Rome, the center of Paganism, Constantine, the sentry of Paganism, had his own ideas of how to meld Christianity into his own image of Catholicism. I'm not really sure why AISH is spending so much time and effort explaining away a religion based on Pagan followings and a trivial amount of Torah, manipulated and changed to satisfy their confused hearts?

Ya'akov , October 2, 5: Regardless of whether or not Jesus existed, we do know the approximate dates of the NT books being written. Christianity was definitely well underway in the 1st century CE. The author states that this is one of the most common question Aish receives. That's why they "spend the tome and effort" explaining it. This is a great compilation of information.

However, this will tend to inflame those whose beliefs may be challenged. Why should a religion that preaches love produce such hate for all those who do not bow to its tenets? Our people have not suffered because they did not accept Jesus--they suffered from those who did. I recently was working at a place where two of my fellow employees referenced the Bible and Jesus.

During a break and in front of others.. All I could say is.. I responded that not only do Jews not share this lack of evidence, but a large number of other religions too!

Wher are they headed? Thanks for the facts to help in my claim that Jesus is Not Lord. He was just as compassionate as you and I should be during a time in our world when men lacked the knowledge of the world around them and the universe beyond. I have never read anything like this before. I have to study the claims especially from Scripture.

Thanks for sending this article along. I am going to print it in order to study and follow the scripture claims. Many of the anti-semetic rhetoric says: Their religion hates Jews because the Jews killed their "G-d".

If their G-d died - isn't it obvious he is not G-d. Abraham taught us that anything that has a weakness cannot be G-d. A man dies - thus he cannot be G-d.

You don't need to know bible to figure this out. After all the Pogroms, Inquisiton, auto-dafe, holocaust, blood-libels, terrorism, spewing-of-hate that the other religions -that believe in him - did against innocent people and Jews, how can any self-respecting Jew "convert" out of Judaism or marry someone that refuses to disown their non-jewish faith. I'm just learning about this and it has me torn. But how can I not believe it. When it makes all the sense in the world thanks for the knowledge.

The other day someone asked me why Jews didn't believe in Jesus, and when I couldn't answer that question, I felt that as a Jew I should research. So I looked up 'why Jews don't believe in Jesus' and this was the first option that came up and I'm glad i did. I was able to share the article with the non-jew and myself. The writing was insightful and sourced well!

Thanks for the clarification on the importance of national revelation. I'm not Jewish but this made sense. Dear Rabbi Simmons, I occasionall have discussions with very knowledgable Christians who seem to be honestly seeking truth. I state what Israels Moshiach will accomplish, as you lead your article with, as pre-requesets to knowing who he is. Please clarify two other points that come up in these discussions: Also there are the angles spritual beings who took human form with Avraham Avinu and Simshon's parents.

Thanks for this spiritually educative article. As a Christian from birth, as i grew up, i began to question many Christian doctrines especially the one that uphold Jesus Christ as God.

I don't believe that God would allow him be tempted and finally killed his creation. Christ never made this claim. I have been longing for true worship of God and thats why i stopped going to church to this day. Thanks for this eye opener. I have always understood that Jesus was, first and foremost, a Jew. Far from his being non-observant, he made it clear he had not come to bypass the law and the prophets. After his death, the first Christian church was based in Jerusalem under his brother James, and all its members were observant Jews.

They only dispersed after AD It was Paul who introduced all the nonsense about Jesus being God, one third of a Trinity, being resurrected and so on. Understood properly, Jesus plays an important role in 2nd-temple Judaism, while the larger role is based on a fiction that became Christianity. While everything that the good Rabbi is true, he as many rabbi's always seem to fall into the Missionary trap and that is to debate if Jesus was the Messiah or not.

Judaism believes in a non-corporeal non divisible, Divine Being, Christianity does not, plain and simple case closed. Who needs to debate them on their out of context, false quotation "proofs" when all we need to know is that the Jewish tradition has always taught of an invisible and undivisible God. Even jesus believed it. Pagan Christianity adopted the "politically correct" Belief of the day and they have been trying to justify it for the past years.

We should not make their lives easier but remind them that our Hebrew Bible has not have ANY Belief of that sort nor ever will. Any honest Christian reading the Bible will tell you the same thing. So the next time you come across someone interested in a religious "dialog", bring this point up and let THEM justify their pagan beliefs from some other religion and not Judaism.

It is my feeling as a orthodox layjew, so to speak, is that there is no real need other than to maintain Jewish identity to anticipate the coming of mashiach. Our responsibility as Jews is to bring the world closer to the messianic ideal. Regardless of the metaphysical reality of mashiach himself, the messianic age will not come about unless we Jews and righteous gentiles do our part to bring G-d's light into the world.

Put in plain English, this means that we should observe Torah and attempt to emulate the chesed shebechesed lovingkindness of G-d by doing good deeds, like helping the poor or disenfranchised Revelation of the actual mashiach, to respond to one commentor, will naturally and nationally follow when he shows up.

For, his showing up is really just a marker for olam haba, when all will know G-d and we will all be one people. I grew up in a practicing Jew, but never fully understood Easter. Now that I live in the Bible belt it wasn't getting any easier to understand. This article put it in such an easy and simple way and cleared up a lot for me.

Thank you for this wonderful summation. Everyone should read this. Really should be taught in all religious schools. I can't believe I never heard this before! One of the basic tenants that I have read is that the Mesiah will be a direct descendant of David.

When that person, who is not devine i. Thank you for the information. It broadened by understanding greatly. Simple and easy to understand. I Wld ask but, never could get clear concise answers!

Thanks so much for all of this info! I'm actually going to bookmark this pg on my phone to refer back to! I'm trying to find a pathway to God.. Now, maybe I can: Sarah , April 5, 4: I'm not Jewish but I think this is a great article.

I wish every Christian became aware of the reasons why Jesus couldn'tt possibly have been the Jewish Messiah. Maybe they would start rethinking their beliefs. Everything i read just gave me a clear understaning about why we did not except JC as messiah bcause of the way we read the sedra if u dont read the whole old Testament u miss think. Now i converted to Judizum about 6 years ago but i converted from Islam so i have never thought of JC as A massiah.

And because im African American Most Jews dont except us but truth be told im pretty sure the Israel Lites looked more like me so i pray that more calcation jews start to reconize that. My entire congrecation is African Americanhas been around for more then 50 years. Thank you so much for this concise yet clear explanation, and the reading list. I am studying with the intention of converting in the future , and this helps to solidify my understanding of Judaism. I especially appreciated the clarification with regards to Isaiah 53, and how Christians misinterpret this to be a prediction about the coming of "the messiah" i.

I always thought the theory was strange to say the least even though I come from a Christian background. Something about the Christian theory about Isaiah 53 just did not resonate with my own personal beliefs. Now I know why. Prior to reading this article I was ignorant of Jewish beliefs. Thank you the article is very clear and informative.

Joyce Shulman , March 15, 5: I am Jewish and, I am ashamed to say,don't know very much about my own religion Your articles are a real treasure for me-and I thank you for them! I was a Christian,but have been thinking a lot, I have many questions and seem to be agnostic at this time thank you for the information to help with some of those questions.

Jews believe in things. I recently corresponded with a Mennonite Minister it's a Christian sect on the meaning of the talmud and oral law.

At the end of the correspondence he remarked that based on all the things that Jews believed, he felt that his own faith narrative was lacking. I wasn't trying to convert the man, and I am assured that I did not.

What I think he meant was that while his religion focuses almost entirely on their messiah and the afterlife he provides, messiah is in my opinion a very small part of Judaism. Moschiac will come when he comes and that will be a good thing. We do mitzvot and make the world a more godly through those actions. Moschiac will simply be a force multiplier for those efforts. I find it sad that when we need to prepare some sort of responsa to Christian missionaries we start with what we don't believe in.

What's wrong with their religion. That's not the issue. It's just not Jewish and we are Jews. We should focus on what we do believe in. What we are taught to value. And on that basis, the faiths are incompatible.

After all, we don't proselytize. We're not winning souls for Judaism. We're simply trying to provide support for Jews that are targeted by missionaries and such. We'll be more effective if we focus on the positive aspects of our faith than the negative aspects of another. If we focus on involving our people in Jewish life then all other faiths become irrelevant. They're not Jewish and we're Jews. Sienna Jae Fein , February 14, 6: Scott makes an important point -- that Jewish-Christian dialogue often begins with what Jews don't believe.

Both religions have the same ethical base, so the divinity of Jesus is the most obvious and most dramatic place to start pinpointing differences. In Christian terms, accepting Jesus as Lord is the pathway to eternal life, and reward in the afterlife is the foremost goal of the Christian. It is difficult for a Christian to imagine how a Jew can risk being denied entry to what Christians call heaven and Jews call olam ha ba. Jews need to cultivate language and vocabulary to describe their beliefs in positive terms -- language that is neither adversarial or defensive, but full of the joy of accomplishment here on earth -- prayer, learning, community, family, mitzvot, tikun olam.

Like Donna, I consider myself to be a Christian but I have trouble with the new testament, especially Paul's writings. I am uncomfortable with some of the contradictions and cannot ignore them, as I have a very enquiring mind.

I feel the need to question what I believe and you have provided a great starting point! Shmuley Anderson , February 6, 3: I was raised a dubious Christian. I am currently converting to Judaism. Still,I have never heard such a marvelously cogent explanation for why Yeshua cannot be the Moshiach.

Thank you, thank you! I used to have a lot of concerns about Jesus as a meassiah, i went over and over the whole new testament , nothing can prove to me that he was and deep down into my heart i feel the need to wait for the real one. That why i decided to leave Christianity and to go home to judaism where my soul belong. Im haitian some people of birth land do a lot of miracles works as well using magik so that give me another good reason not to believe on them but HasHem the powerfull G-D.

I consider myself a christian, but have never been reluctant to question things! I do not believe in 'blind faith' and to be honest I have struggled with the new testament for a while.

This piece is informative and interesting and will certainly encourage me to research more. Chris , March 16, Like you, I like to questions things, and it led me to quit believing in Jesus even though I was raised Christian. Something just didn't seem right or believable about him to me I am going to try to find out more on here as I read all the articles and replies.. Sure makes sense to me.

We have a blessed history. What is going on withthe rest of the world? I've been a lifelong nonbeliever of any faith, but reading this article has turned me on to further looking into Judaism.

I've never been so sure about the big man in the sky, but this makes sense if there were one. Why would he not expose himself to all of his people instead of just a few "prophets", that never made sense to me about Christianity. Thank you for this great article and I look forward to learning more.

I am always amazed that otherwise intelligent and reasonable people can stare the truth in the face and still cling to their mistaken beliefs.

Nothing in the Torah describes a virgin birth of the Messiah. Behold, the young woman will become pregnant and bear a son, and you will name him Immanuel. King Ahaz would have to be resurrected in order to name the child.

And, Mary and Joseph named their first born son Yehoshua, not Immanuel. Further, the prophecy would do King Ahaz no good if he were dead before it came true. New American Bible Revised Edition This woman and child cannot be Mary and Jesus because this scene occurred more than years before Mary and Jesus lived.

So I say to you, send out My son that he may serve Me. On the second coming? Did not your Jesus come a second time when he was supposedly resurrected and appeared to his followers? That was his second coming and he still did not complete any prophecy.

And, he seemed to have come a third time for Mormons when he supposedly appeared to Joseph Smith. Can someone lead me to a reference that further explains this concept? Vlad Seder , November 26, 6: Jewish concept of communication with G-d is always communal - even today certain daily prayers could be said only with quorum of ten adult male Jews. Such a major communication as prophesy requires majority of the people to be present - and it requires unity of the people. While prophesy does require the people to be in the land of Israel, there were some exceptions - like Moses and Daniel, who prophesied while they were with the majority of the people outside of Israel.

Nobody is trying to convince you otherwise. The rabbi is just explaining, why we dont believe in Jesus. We believe hes a prophet just hes not the messiah. As long as you are a good person and follow the 10 commandments all is well: Jews are born jews for a reason.

I am actually a convert bt obviously had a spark in me that gnawed away until I decided to convert. You start finding things out little by little. I consulted with rabbis, read books, re-interpreted the Torah and the Halaha, attended services at the nearest Schul and rearranged my thoughts and beliefs accordingly.

Christian , November 17, 7: If you read the new testament of Bible, you can see the great forgiveness that Jesus showed to the people who crucified him. He was praying for those who were hurting him. The true followers of Jesus show the same love and compassion to others.

Reading the new testament gives me the strength to forgive others and to lead a peaceful life. Anonymous , November 18, 6: You can't argue facts, and the facts are JC yes was a Jew, but nothing more. If it is a condition for the Messsiah to come, why aren't Jews returning to Isreal? Iminbitulzone , November 28, 5: Just that this is one of his accomplishments fter he comes. I basically need to memorize this entire article in order to tell my family why I'm embracing my Jewish heritage instead of pretending to be Christian.

All my family members know they're Jewish both sides, oddly enough but they've been fearful to acknowledge it publicly and only speak Yiddish in whispers. So I don't predict too much opposition but at least if someone actually believes in Jesus as the Messiah, I will know how to respond! Learn from the prophecies. Anonymous , November 15, We are not all God's children.

God wants us all to be saved but a lot of people chose to live life as they wanted and not heed God's will on how to live our lives. God's children are those people who do deeds that are truly God's. Those who involve themselves to lies and violence can never be called God's children.

I was born and raised as a Lutheran Christian, and my faith was confirmed last spring. Going through confirmation, I was always told that Jesus was the messiah, I never was told about these qualifications. Also, the idea that God would tell everyone about a messiah, and not just one person. I don't know if I'd be willing to give up my Christian faith quite yet, but it was very interesting to look at some other beliefs.

I may switch to Judaism eventually. Once you realize jesus 1. I also had to deal with this. I am a noachide now,I wait for the true messiah, and i attend a jewish synagogue but they know I am a gentile.

If I were young I would attempt to convert. But I have several cancers and time is--?? Many Christians will be perplexed when the Messiah comes, I wonder what they will do and how they will behave when Israel has its Messiah. He will rebuild the temple, re-institute the daily obligations, etc, etc, and I just wonder how much support they will offer when their real Messiah comes! Leila, you want to read the Torah? I'm sure you have if you have already read the bible like you say; the Torah is merely the first five books of the bibliography of books that have been labeled by Christians as the "holy bible".

I also noticed you claim your grandmother never "swore". Did you mean used profane language or swore as in swearing by attesting to something in high regard, like swearing or giving the oath to tell the truth? As far as your grandmother never breaking any of the ten commandments; that's not the sign of someone being Jewish.

The 10 commandments are something that unite all peoples by knowing that those commandments are fundamental rules that all humans regard as a common law through both nature and God. The guilt is record of the Law written upon the hearts of mankind. I'm sure your grandmother had to have at least lied, etc, as all mankind is sinful and not even your grandmother can boast of being perfect.

Okay I'm done ranting. Nice story though, many people in the United States are Jewish and have no idea of their lineage because through secrecy and then ignorance it was shelved. It means very little without the Spirit moving and calling upon the person to wake up to their "religion". Good luck in your adventures!

It should be noted that the first historical mention of Jesus is years after his alleged birth. Not one writer or historian who would be a contemporary of Jesus ever mentions his existence. I agree with somethings but not with others I would think that God with all the power that the Jews attribute to him could take in any form Anonymous , May 24, 4: Judaism is the only way to go,we've bn fooled 4long. Am converting soon 2Judaism. I was told just before my maternal grandmother passed away that we are Jewish.

I had not heard much about Judaism before this and therefore was shocked when she told me. I had at that time been thinking of converting to catholicism because I was unsatisfied with my religion as taught when I was growing up, mostly by my fathers side of the family and that was Southern Baptist, not that it was bad, my grandmother never wore pants, she never swore and never broke any of the ten commandments that I am aware of.

As I have been researching the religion of my mother's side of the family, some of them were not practicing Judaism either, though I am afraid that that had to do with how Jews are treated in certain areas, I have managed to discover that jesus is not mentioned anywhere in the Old Testament, there is however a mention of a virgin birth, I think it's in Isaiah, that says that a virgin will give birth and his name will be Immanuel. I read it and re-read it and I saw no where in the chapter it was mentioned in where G-d changed his mind and said "Oh, maybe it could be jesus or well you know maybe Immanuel means jesus, as a matter of fact he didn't appear to stutter at all.

I therefore take the F-ther at his word, because he it the all knowing and the One and Only Eternal F-ther. The more I read on Judaism the more I wonder how I could have missed so much while reading the bible when I was younger. I would love to get my hands on a Torah and would love to learn the hebrew language. Most of my family denies our Jewish heritage anyway. I sure would love to see Israel. Anonymous , November 28, 5: We've been weaned from our heritage as a result of the tragic vicissitudes of history.

Thank you for posting this article. Just what I was looking for. I was brought up as a Christian and never thought I'd doubt Christianity. But I am at a place in my life where I doubt what I have always believed. I can't explain to others why I doubt Jesus is the so called only way to G-d, as well as why I doubt Christianity, but this article helps somewhat.

I am in a hard place because everyone around me including family is Christian. I cannot explain to them why I feel the way I do but I do feel Christianity is wrong for me! I feel like an outcast because of the way I feel. But back to your article, thank you for sharing! Gretchen , April 8, Tomas , April 10, 6: You are reminding me of my own past wrestling with Christianity, to which religion I had been firstly coerced and later manipulated by my Roman Catholic parents and which religion I found only to be humiliating, frustrating and guilt-tripping.

I won't give the details of the whole story because they would make up a complete novel, but let me say that I took a a pretty long and dramatic spiritual journey, which reached a happy ending where I embraced Judaism and committed myself to be a Noahide.

Study anything from the treasure of the Jewish tradition that you feel to speak to your heart at this very moment you need to carefully consider which texts you need most at this moment, as you won't be able to read everything , make use of the fact that a very large variety of Judaica books is available to you from web-based bookstores and visit regularly aish.

In the end you will discover that there are strikingly genuine, deep and beautiful things in Judaism which you would never find in Christianity. Accept the fact that your family may frown at you and never let their disapproval discourage you or influence you in any way. I appreciate the jewish people for educating so called christians on the sciptures of the bible about the messiah.

Nikolai, When Moses appointed Joshua to be his successor, Moses a Levite laying hands on a non-Levite to take his place?

Joshua the 13th tribe, referring to the Tribe of Levi, since Moses was a Levite. Joshua was listed with Ephraim's tribe under the title of Joseph's tribe. There was not a piece of land assigned to Joseph's tribe under Joseph's name in the land of Israel. The only two sons that weren't. The Tribe of Levi was still a tribe, Levi was a son of Jacob Israel and that would make the tribe of Levi the 13th tribe. However, Moses the Levite appoints Joshua to stand in his place as a Levite, as the leader, leading all the tribes of Israel into Canaan.

Ephraim and Manasseh replaced the names of Joseph and Levi in the line up of Jacob's children of the 12 tribes. Ephraim Joshua was exchanged for Joseph. Levites took the place of the firstborn, though each tribe the firstborn was to be dedicated to G-d for his service, a Levite would be sent in the place of the birth of the firstborn for the other 12 Tribes.

Manasseh takes the place of Levi in the line up. For G-d said the Levites were not to be counted in the census. Shelly comment is rambling, verging on incoherent: Joshua tribe 13th " Again What?

Joshua wasn't until generations later, and never a "tribe". Anyway, that isn't what I wanted to talk about. What I want to talk about is the "Second Coming". The name I have for that is: It was very rewarding having read this article. Many non-traditional Jewish spokesmen have at times found a need to connect with the majority population by at least saying Jesis was a "rabbi". Classical Judaism stands for Truth without compromise and never allowed a feeling to "connect" assimilate by emracing Jesis in anyway.

Sadly popularity seeking "Rabbi Boteach" who was a former "spiritual guide" of Michael Jackson and advisor to Al Sharpton and publisher of Kosher Sex , he is also a colunnist in Jerusalem Post and elsewhere and now also wants to run for British Chief Rabbi G-d help us His book on Amazon , when clicking on it for the introduction, appears to present him as a "Jewish patriot" against Rome who was a regular "Orthodox Jew". The book cover was a drawing of him with his pierced hand.

Based on the New Testament of course JOhn and elsewhere he says he is god and a son of god and messiah wrapped in one. You know, there are all these great men of G-d in the Tanach, and none of them qualified as being the mashiach. Tough position to get and to keep if you do have most of these qualifications, by the way doesn't change they were great men of G-d and that they did great things.

But none were "it. I wonder about that. Replacements have occurred from firstborn to another birth order for Kohen, however, it has been stated why the replacement had taken place in the Tanach, and as we know, they weren't the mashiach. How the mashiach would be from the tribe of Judah and not the tribe of Aaron, over the Golden Calf incident. You had mention tribal passes through the father. If a man adopts a firstborn male child into his already having children, the adopted child isn't a firstborn in the adopted family.

No children in the family, he still wouldn't be the firstborn male child of the adopted father, for the child is not his own firstborn. Joseph, as I see in the Torah had no children listed. Joseph did "adopt" the other 10 tribes, one tribe being combined into one.

Joshua wasn't one of Jacob's sons, would had to been an adopted son, as I see the one they got in exchange for selling Joseph into slavery. Joshua tribe 13th becomes one of Joseph's tribe. The ten tribes becoming one under the leadership and under the title of Joseph's tribe, through a form of tribal adoption, leaves the two tribes of Israel N and S, now present day, combined as one. Priest, Prophet, and King is a tall order to fill. The mashiach has to come from the tribe of Judah, today Israel is not divided, but one, we are one tribe now right?

Is it about location? A very certain illustration of the power of the Jewish nation of those time. Oh those great Macabees. Thanks for this article it's actually really informative. Speaking of this i'd like to also say I appreciate no one writing anything offensive and disrespectful about how us jews or non-believers are going to He LL. This was something I expected to be inevitable given so many believers think this about non-believers.

I once again appreciated something well written from the Aish. Thank you for a clear, succinct and helpful article. I was just disappointed that it wasn't a bit more clear that Judaism is not looking for non-Jews to convert in order to bring the Massiah. This was perfect "to love all humanity generously" It would have been better to mention the " Noahite laws for non-Jews and as was written for the Jews. Thank you and keep up the wonderful work at Aish. Thank you for this very informative lesson.

I grew up in a non-religious household, and took myself off to church when I was thirteen years old. I never found Christianity easy to believe in. It wasn't until my two daughters converted to Judaism many years later, that I started to look in that direction. Then everything fell into place, I studied in Manchester and completed studies here, and was finally accepted and converted in I will be sending your lesson to my very 'Born Again' Christian brother in the hope that it may answer some of his own questions.

I am an ex-Christian. Was brought up Catholic and converted to Fundamental Christianity in after being evangelised by so called well-meaning X-ian. Until 2 years ago is when God opened my eyes to the truth of Torah. I am now a Noahide who is learning about the Seven Laws of Noah and how much He loves all of humanity. Concerning X-anity I did not study for myself to find out the truth.

We were just told to believe what they told us as the Scriptures were the infalliable Word of God and therefore had to be the truth. We believed that until I found out the New Testament had many errors and many things taken from the Tanach were taken out of context.

The truth shocked me at first but one has to ha ve an open mind and praise God I did. After studying Judaism one realises how duped I was to believe in this J. We were so brainwashed by X-ianity and I thank Hashem for setting me from it. As a Catholic, I've struggled with many aspects of Christianity for years. Especially with Catholic doctrine. I appreciate this explanation, especially since it clarifies the Jewish position on Jesus while not disparaging non-Jews.

I found this website in the most roundabout of ways, through a link to the Rosh Hashanah video on membase. As a gentile, but with a lifelong passion for Judaism and it's study, I am often asked seemingly simple questions about Judaic beliefs by other gentiles that I cannot confidently answer with authority.

The author has made a confident and emminently knowledgable explanation that I intend to share with non-Jews asking this common question. It helps all of us of ANY faith to understand the truth about Messianic beliefs. I wish that more educated and easily comprehended explanations were so readily available and also offered by religious leaders outside the Jewish faith.

I do not criticize the differing beliefs of others, only hoping for an educated and informed point of view on their behalf. Here in the US, there are frighteningly huge numbers of people who "believe" Jesus is the Messiah ONLY because that is what they have been told, NOT because they actually examined all the scripture before and after and made an informed decision personally.

True Biblical scholars are rare in the Christian Church, as most are self proclaimed "experts" and interpret readings within subjective prejudices. I have found many credible scholars within the more "formal" Christian denominations, such as The Church of England Anglican or Episcopal versions, many intellectual Catholic priests, many Lutherans, and Presbyterians and some Methodists and Methodist- Episcopal leaders certainly not all clergy in all mentioned faiths, however.

The most eccentric and unschooled beliefs come from the radical "Fundamentalists," and I personally believe that these self proclaimed prophets and "pastors" are no different than self-appointed idols themselves. They inspire true fear within me. Most are interested in power and money, and too easily find willing flocks, and these followers are, to me, eerily similar to radical sects of other faiths that often seedand nuture terrorism.

I was a Xian by birth although my family never practiced any faith they said they were protestants. I went to church trying to find G-d. But many years later I walked into a Synogogue and all my questions were answered in time. So now I practice being an observant Noachide with Rabinical guidance and feel free of the myths I took for granted as a xian. Roberto , October 30, 6: The problem with that claim which some Jewish apologist say is Why writers of such "fiction" Gospels allowed themselves to be martyred for their faith in a Messiah who was a product of their own fiction.

We must inform continously the people the of the Truth. Lots of jews do not know this- - unfortunately! Anonymous , October 2, 7: This inherent sense of The cell phone can be seen as a device that amplifies this trend, by empowering moving individuals to connect to any distant partners at any point in time, regardless of location and speed. First of all, more communicative contacts between moving and non-moving individuals can be established.

In the era of fixed phones, moving people could use public phones to connect with stationary individuals, but they themselves could not be contacted.

Consequently, moving people were very isolated from new incoming information, so that they could not participate in social actions that demanded very rapid communication e.

By using cell phones and other devices of mobile translocal communications, there is a greater degree of freedom for combining stationary and moving cooperation units without losses in transmission speed and reaction time.

Secondly, higher communicative connectivity among moving actors can be achieved. Previous to this one who was in transit was also incommunicado.

Now mobile telephony allows for nearly continuous and ubiquitous communication under transport. Two parties might, for example, generally agree to meet somewhere at an approximate time. As the two are in transit they might call each other to confirm the timing and the location.

Finally, if the two can not locate each other at the agreed upon place at the agreed upon time we can have a third round of calls for the final location of each other. Thus mobile communication allows for the structuring and rationalization of interaction, particularly in the face of distributed participants.

It is also possible to keep the composition of meeting participants open to change: On a most general level, it can be argued that the cell phone eliminates at least some of the advantages of sedentary life styles, which are responsible for the constant decline of nomadism since the rise of higher human civilization. Similarly, cell phones can reduce the marginality of many traditional ethnic groupings like Bedouins, gypsies etc.

The usage of the telephone as a communication medium is generally hampered by the fact that phone calls tend to intrude at unpredictable moments, forcing them to redirect their attention to the caller even in unfavorable circumstances: Thus, phone communication generally strains the capacity of individuals to switch roles and to redirect attention very rapidly at any unforeseen moment: The cell phone accentuates these contingencies because in comparison with the fixed phone at home, calls can hit receivers in a much broader range of different mental states, social circumstances and environmental conditions for instance while being exposed to eavesdropping in a cafeteria or while driving a car.

For several reasons, then, cell phone calls have a highly negative, destabilizing influence on ongoing face-to-face interactions:. First, the calls typically occur at unpredictable times, so that they cannot be anticipated and integrated into the local discourse.

Secondly, deeply anchored norms and habits usually demand that calls are answered at the moment they come in, so that local interactions are disrupted even at highly critical moments. All ringing phones are disruptive, even arresting. Like a calling bird, a ringing phone demands a response. Public uses of the mobile spread this tension to all those within earshot, while leaving them powerless to intervene: Third , when an individual is answering a call, he or she gets involved in a bilateral communication process completely segregated from the local interaction field for purely technical reasons, because other bystanders cannot see who is calling and cannot hear the caller speaking.

Therefore, all possible reactions to incoming calls are likely to disrupt the ongoing social interactions:. This leaves bystanders helplessly waiting, and evaporates ongoing discussions, so that the thread of talk can often not be easily taken up again when collocal interaction is resumed.

This is only possible when local activities do not require much involvement, certainly not when they consist of verbal communication Plant In all cases, a situation of normlessness and insecurity is created, which tends to increase when the conversation endures and its total length cannot be anticipated.

Reinforcing these technical conditions, there is another deep-seated habit to focus attention completely on the communication with the caller e. Thus, answering a phone call means disengaging oneself psychologically from the face-to-face discourse at least on the level of verbal communication.

It is actually transformed into the sense of belonging to one's communicative network. Those emotional elements that are lost in the relation with space are transferred to a social level, that is loyalty, the sense of identification, familiarity, stability, security, and so on. However our partial mode of adhering to a single place is translated at the same time into a sense of potential belonging to a host of different places. When a phone call comes in or perhaps more pretentiously, when a call is placed out , the user decides, consciously or otherwise, what face takes precedence: The greater the conflict between the behavioral requirements of the two spaces, the more conscious, explicit, and difficult this decision might be.

The mere fact of showing different faces to the present and the absent interaction partners. In other words, the simultaneous, visible acting out of different roles makes it easier to recognize that individuals actually play roles instead of just displaying their personality. Consequently, bystanders will be more prone to attribute individual behavior to factors of external influence, while the attribution to stable personality traits becomes more difficult because such attributions have to be consistent with all the divergent forms of behavior observed.

Therefore, individuals become more absorbed by the highly difficult task of managing role conflicts and discrepant strategies of self-presentation at the same time. The stage management can become quite complex. Like a cubist painting, the speaker on the mobile phone is seen from two perspectives. Very often, therefore, phone users experience situations of normlessness, insofar as there are no standing rules prescribing how such contradictions can be reconciliated:.

Certain conversations can induce emotional and bodily responses, which may be quite incompatible with their perceptions of their physical location. The mobile requires its users to manage the intersection of the real present and the conversational present in a manner that is mindful of both. Thus, a very broad spectrum of factors co-determines how receivers react to a specific call, how elaborated or intimate their verbal utterances are, what kind of topics they try to evade etc.

Such i mpression management behavior reaches its culmination when fake talks are simulated Plant Typically, this decision has to be paid for with uneasy moments of anomie after finishing the call, when the interactions with the original bystander s have to be resumed Ling As Lasen has observed in his ethnographic three-city study, role conflicts arising between the two frontstages phone call and face-to-face meeting are handled differently in various countries:.

Londoners and Parisians are more likely to treat a phone call as an interruption, for instance when being with other people, than users in Madrid. Cell phone calls contrast with ongoing face-to-face interactions because role performances have to be exclusively based on verbal communication.

This usually implies that conversation has to be rather loud and highly articulated, so that the remote recipient can understand it clearly. In addition, the complete absence of visual cues and the poverty of paralinguistic expressions implies that practically all communication including metacommunicative transmissions designed to create context and to define the relationship between the speakers has to be based on linguistic articulations.

Through our use of nods, glances, small sounds and other gestures we indicate attention, the desire to speak, the desire to retain the floor and indicate pauses. We also use these devices to impart meaning and emphasis. All of these gestures are changed in a normal telephone conversation. As a consequence, cell phone speakers often have no other choice than to engage in highly elaborated forms of verbal behavior: In order to reduce such irritations, it is to be expected that partners intensify communication on the nonverbal level e.

Such compensative nonverbal communication can have two signalling functions, communicating to the bystanders:. Risks of "interactional overheating" are associated with the fact that interactions by phone are based completely on verbal exchange. In face to face gatherings, conversation can easily be intermittent because the mere togetherness in the same location assures that the relationship is seen as continuing even when there are long periods of silence.

In some cultures e. In the case of telephone calls, however, talk has to flow continuously from beginning to end, because any interruption leads to high insecurity whether the other one is still "on the line" or still willing to continue the contact at all. In the Finnish case, for instance, this results frequently in very brief mobile phone talks focussing exclusively on "real information" especially about time and place of future meetings.

As fixed telephones belong to specific locations rather than to specific individuals, they support rather depersonalized and collectivized communication structures, as found mainly in bureaucratic organizations as well as in many less formalized settings e.

Formal organizations in particular have become highly sophisticated in using landline phone systems for designing communication channels in accordance with their formal structure.

For instance, traditional police communication is characterized by radial communication flows: Nowadays when all peripheral policemen can contact each other directly by cell phone, they can easily circumvent this centralized relay station: On the one hand, such short-circuiting is functional for abridging unproductive red tape and for accelerating the speed of reaction, but, on the other hand, it can challenge the structures and processes of formal organization in three ways:.

Communication channels are no longer authoritatively predefined. Instead, they are chosen by the subordinate members themselves, so that management has no overview about who contacts whom, who is cooperating with whom.

Less information about peripheral events, activities and developments flows into the organizational center, so that superiors have less knowledge that would enable them to react and to intervene.

All these covert horizontal exchanges are potential breeding grounds for autonomous subgroups and informal organization as well as for various kinds of deviant behavior, because the participants can easily agree to attenuate or circumvent prescribed rulings.

Thus, it provides a back channel through which they can agree upon various irregular covert activities. This means that the mobile telephone can change the specific routines associated with police work. Where one relied on a central dispatcher to communicate messages to other agencies and organizations, the police officer is able to do this by himself. In some cases this may lead to more efficient work.

On the other hand, there is a reduction in the pool of general knowledge provided by the traditional radio communication. This may mean that the information, and perhaps the activities of the agency are more disjointed.

Similar changes occur in households where the singular fixed phone has become a supportive element of a collectivized communication structure with the function of mediating between incoming phone calls and individual recipients.

Thus, the ethnographic study of Sawhney and Gomez about the communicative interaction pattern of recent immigrants to the U. In fact, the wife also acts as a link to their friends in the local community in their case.

Hence she maintains an important communication role in the family. From closer examination of all interviews, we have subsequently discovered that the wives also maintain ties with their husband's families in India, via a cousin there through email who now serves the role of a distant hub in the social network.

By contrast, a common aspect of Email, SMS and cell phone calls is that they all promote segregated bilateral relationships, because mutual two-way communications cannot usually be watched by third parties. Now other members of the family have access to their own number and the possibility of managing their own communicative networks.

As a consequence, the family as a social system is weakened on a normative as well as on a cognitive level. First , the normative influence of the family on personal communications declines. In the past, personal bilateral communications have often been heavily influenced by the presence of other family members during these communications. Today, such influences are less likely to occur. Telephone clubs had long been popular ways for students and schoolgirls, as well as professional women and housewives, to make contact with potentially lucrative lovers.

But the privacy, anonymity, and mobility of the keitai have made this kind of contact even easier: Fixed phone calls produce high numbers of unintended recipients because any member living in the same household, workplace or institution can answer the call. These unintended recipients may be a nuisance to callers who want to deliver their message directly to a specific person - especially it is highly confidential, or when others should not even know that the contact has taken place.

In many other circumstances, however, unplanned recipients have positive effects:. This happened once in every three calls of this type. It was particularly common in Lesley's interactions with friends of her children calling in. She uses the opportunity of taking a 'missed connection' to Gordon or Kath to consolidate her relationship with them! Again, it is evident how cell phones tend to reduce interpersonal communication to the range of preplanned, well-intended interactions: Specifically, we may find that each family member has many acquaintances and ongoing interactions unknown to the other family members.

To the degree that family members themselves communicate by new media, their relationships become more bilateral and individualized. For instance, a mother has more leeway to disclose highly divergent thoughts and opinions to her husband, her son and her daughter on the phone, while in the past, she communicated one single version to all together e.

Cell phones reduce the degree to which experiences and social contacts are shared among family members. Instead, intra-group information sharing takes place only insofar as individuals are ready to convey such private information voluntarily to their kin. Given these strong bilateralizing impacts, the conclusion seems unavoidable that mobile phones cannot be potent instruments for the quick build-up of large-scale collectivities and collective actions - except under highly specific circumstances, when many group members assume the role of active propagators.

Only when such broad, active participation is ensured, can a snowball effect take place, which leads to a rapidly growing base of activated members or sympathizers. With text-based messages like SMS, distortions are minimized because they can be reproduced and distributed in identical form. Thus, the chances of quick and extensive collective activation accrues to groups with a high absolute number of activists functioning as transmission relays in such network systems.

Whenever this precondition is fulfilled, informal factions of any kind and size can successfully challenge centralized communication channels, thus lowering the capacity of overall formal organizations to reach or maintain internal consensus and centralized leadership Ling b. Within organizations, much need for the delegation of responsibility and for taking individual decisions arises from lack of communication.

For instance, when a service worker sent to a customer or a social worker sent to a client meets an unexpected or new kind of problem situation, he has to decide on the spot how to proceed: Similarly, paramedics called to an emergency patient have to take measures on the spot, without consultation with a doctor.

In many cases, such delegation of autonomy leads to strains and deficits of performance because these peripheral agents have rather low qualifications. This problem is vividly illustrated in the case of policemen who have to exercise very high discretion when confronted with cases of group violence, civil disobedience or public unrest, despite the fact that they occupy very inferior hierarchical positions.

For many organizations, this usually means that their ambulant members have to be equipped with detailed instructions and specific rules, so that they know exactly what to do in most probable and even less probable circumstances. For instance, life insurance companies have to fix rigid conditions for contracts, so that their agents are not able to adapt the conditions to each specific customer.

The cell phone can ease such discrepancies between low formal and high factual discretion by providing the inferior employees with a means to contact their superiors as well as colleagues or specialized experts, in order to get information and advice, but, especially, to legitimize their decision by reaching consensus and mobilize support.

This may be particularly functional for novices who are not yet so experienced. Even beginners with rather low knowledge can be sent to do peripheral service tasks, because whenever an unfamiliar problem arises, they can contact more experienced collaborators who tell them what to do. You can do things twice but it is often one way that is better than another. So if you call to one of these bigwigs you can find out how it should be done. Then instead of them coming around once a week to talk with us it is ok to call a number and you get a clear idea.

When individuals are interacting, they are likely to be heavily influenced by the specific conditions of the microsocial setting: When they are alone, their actions are more likely to be conditioned by subjective psychological factors on the one hand and supraindividual or cultural factors on the other: For instance, children may be less prone to develop an autonomous personality guided by internalized conscience when they are constantly communicating with monitoring parents.

In formal organizations, for instance, the anarchic ubiquity of cell phone contacts makes it likely that employees reach agreement on practices that are not covered by formal standards and not welcomed by uninformed supervisors. Following the terminology of Barry Wellman, it could be stated that the cell phone. Despite the basic bilaterality of its communication channels, the mobile phone can eventually act as a catalyzer of collectivization, at least in situations where many receivers are ready to forward the message, to one or few other persons, so that they spread in a tree-like fashion.

This has happened in the protest actions against president Estrada in the Philippines, where the mobile phone net was successfully used first by agitators to propagate hostile slogans and jokes, and afterwards by protest leaders to redirect the demonstrating crowds. Since very early stages, human societies have always possessed many population segments which have not been bound to specific territorial locations: In modern societies, the last category especially has grown to unprecedented dimensions.

Physicians, lawyers, scientists, architects, nurses and journalists are cultivating occupational solidarities, knowledge bases, ethical standards, linguistic conventions and behavioral standards that extend over wide geographical regions: The whole spectrum of new translocational communication media helps to strengthen such communities by facilitating the communication among members, irrespective of their current location and movements. As a consequence, they can improve their capacities to maintain homogeneous patterns of knowledge and norms, and to diffuse new patterns very swiftly.

Furthermore, all members have better opportunities to influence and consult each other, not only on the sphere of general professional principles, but on the much more tactical and technical levels of everyday occupational practice.

Given that the new media facilitate all kind of translocal communication, it is to be expected that they are disproportionately used by those social strata which have always been disposed to cultivate widespread contacts over wider geographical areas. For instance, national politicians may make more use of them than local politicians mainly involved in intracommunal face-to-face interactions; and locally minded high school teachers may see less need for usage than cosmopolitan academic scientists who have always been involved in scientific communities spreading over the whole globe.

As such translocal orientations are highly correlated with occupational prestige, it is no surprise to find that incumbents of reputational occupations and professions show higher usage intensities - even when covariating factors like education and income are controlled Davied et al Many institutions like police, fire departments, ambulances etc.

Thus, their functionality depends critically on factors they cannot control: Of course, such notifications are especially crucial in sparsely populated countries like Finland, Norway or Australia, where observers of street accidents, criminal acts or fires have a good the to be the first and only ones calling for intervention.

Australian studies in particular have showed that considerable percentages of all cell phone users have already made such calls. Under these conditions, there is ample room for "cellular samaritans": In aggregate, these selfless, often anonymous acts presumably benefit countless thousands, if not millions of people Mobile phones may well be making a major contribution to social capital by providing a means for people to become more active citizens by engaging in small acts of social responsibility and interpersonal concern.

Evidently, this presupposes that emergency services are a activated very quickly and b are often contacted by different callers, so that they are able to gather more precise information and ensure that they are not the victims of mere hoaxes. Evidently, such civic duties are especially relevant in sparsely populated rural areas, where it is to be expected that I may be the only bystander able to call for help.

This may at least partially explain the very high use of the cell phone in the Nordic countries Finland, Norway, Sweden with their extensive system of herding, fishing and agriculture.

In more crowdy areas like metropolitan suburbs, however, cell phones are likely to affect emergency institutions negatively insofar as they cause information overflows:.

Now emergency services are being inundated with multiple calls for the same emergency, slowing down response time and preventing other emergency calls from coming in. All increases in communication capacities facilitate the efficient usage of all kinds of resources. The cell phone is especially functional for making short-term just-in-time adaptations to unpredictable changes in needs.

Thus, each phone user is empowered to make more efficient use of his or her "social capital". Under conventional conditions, individuals have usually to be satisfied with the support of bystanders for fulfilling their current needs e. Mobile phone users instead are prone to "choose the person who most closely satisfies their preferences at any given moment.

No massive new physical infrastructure will emerge; rather it is the intensification of urban activity - the speeding up of urban metabolism. By increasing the rate of decentralized interactions between a multitude of different actors , the cell phone makes it even more improbable that any centralized agencies still have the capacity to preplan, steer and control collective actions - despite the undeniable fact that capacities for centralized data gathering are also increased.

As mobile phone systems are tightly knit cellular structures based on a fine distribution of local antennas, the geographic location of every cell phone user can be rather precisely assessed at any moment, except at periods when his phone set is shut down. For the same reason, it is also easy for local broadcasters to reach all users located within a specified area, and for all users present in a specific territory to gather relevant local information e. Of course, such capacities can be better exploited by text-based SMS messages than by audio-calls, because SMS makes it possible to send identical messages simultaneously to a potentially unlimited number of receivers.

In the future, this feature is very likely to be exploited for the purpose of influencing local and regional populations: Locally oriented political campaigns may become more vigorous because parties use cell phone systems to target electoral propaganda to the populations of precincts or counties; local churches may inform neighbourhoods about their services; and regional drugstores, hospitals, schools or welfare institutions may inform their relevant public e.

Thus, SMS may become a major tool for creating or reinforcing social integration on a territorial basis: Similarly, large festivals with different simultaneous stage productions can be organized in a more flexible fashion because visitors can be notified very rapidly when new performances are going to start in specific places Nilsson et.

For highly mobile individuals unacquainted with the environment in which they are currently located, such SMS services are especially useful for finding out where the next Pizzeria, dentist, police station, or flower shop is located.

By lowering the costs of acquiring information even in highly complex urban environments, individuals are better able to make efficient use of everything a big city has to offer, so that the attractiveness and competitiveness of big cities and the sprawling agglomerations surrounding them may be considerably increased.

By such chains of causality, the cell phone may well contribute to a vigorous increase in urban concentration Townsend Implications on the macro-level of interorganisational systems and societal institutions.

By building factories, churches, opera houses, schools or psychiatric institutions and by organizing congresses or meetings, highly stable, visible and neatly circumscribed social systems are created by anchoring them physical space. Especially under traditional conditions where primary no-tech communications prevail, such anchoring has the double function of:.

On the acoustical level, for instance, this implies the existence of a scheme of causal interpretations, which allows all manifestations of noise to be attributed to endogenous sources within the system. A case in point is the classical theater, where the multitude of different noises does not diminish but instead augment, the degree to which it is a unitary, integrated whole:.

But these disturbances have been endogenous: Theater performances have historically been resistant to exogenous disruptions, and the theater building is designed to make such disruptions unlikely. On the visual level, the unity of the social system is supported by its physical architecture that defines a specific mapping of places and activities:.

The architecture itself does not guarantee that everyone will behave themselves according to their assigned position in the theater's social order, but it does provide structural resources and constraints for the socialization process. Everyone plays their part in this institutional drama, and so the play can get performed. According to Foucault , this linkage between architecture and social institutions is a primary basis of social power, because by constructing buildings and designing physical technologies, societal elites have powerful media at hand for implementing their class-specific values and norms.

Usually, the power to define and maintain system boundaries accrues to the elites who found and manage these organizations and arrangements: Thus, modern economic systems are heavily based on industrial organizations which have separated work processes from their traditional embedment in family households or other e.

Conventional theories of modernization usually give much weight to such achievements of interinstitutional segregation: While designed for talking at a distance, landline phones have paradoxically also facilitated dense aggregations of people in space, for example by supporting the communication within large-size firms:. Similarly, the fixed phone had a stabilizing impact on families, because households, not individual members, were the units between which it created communicative connections.

As people had to go somewhere to meet someone, they also had to phone somewhere in order to communicate with a specific person Wellman By articulating differences in location, fixed landline phones have even contributed to more pronounced segregation between different social spheres. For example, the widespread traditional habit of juxtaposing private numbers and office numbers e. Evidently, fixed phones are adapted to a society primarily structured in terms of stable location-based social systems: They are most functional when the purpose is to reach such locational units, irrespective of the people who are present there at the moment.

When a specific, but momentarily absent, individual is sought, the premise is that any other person answering the incoming call is not only acquainted with the targeted person, but will reliably inform him or her about the call or even transmit a message. This premise is certainly fulfilled in the case of stable families inhabiting the same apartment or among employees of the same firm. In such cases, cell phones are more useful, because they help to reach specific individuals directly, thus circumventing any need for intermediary messengers located at the same place.

Their use shifts community ties from linking people-in-places to linking people wherever they are. Because the connection is to the person and not to the place, it shifts the dynamics of connectivity from places--typically households or worksites--to individuals.

This functionality is particularly crucial in the case of divorced parents: In some instances, it has been reported that the non-resident parent has purchased a mobile telephone for their child. Sometimes the children can be quite young.

In cases where the adults are not able to agree on the rules of contact this creates a parallel communications channel that is, to some degree, outside the purview of the resident parent. At the same time, the mobile telephone allows the parents to communicate and coordinate with their child without needing to go through the filtering of the ex-partner. An analogous emancipative effect is found in the case of prostitutes for whom cell phones open the way for individual arrangements with their customers: Seen in a more generalized perspective, various electronic means of communication have the capacity to undermine such segregation by increasing the permeability between hitherto strictly separated contexts of social life.

At many workplaces, for instance, PC users are free to switch between private and professional computer usage back and forth at any moment of time; and work may extend into private life when office calls are received during evenings, weekends or vacation. Under such new circumstances, centralized institutional control of system boundaries is more difficult to maintain, because it is no longer achieved as a simple correlate of physical walls or spatial distances, but has to be actively upheld by constant controlling procedures e.

It is empirically easy to see many circumstances under which such centralized control is inexistent or ineffective , so that control shifts downwards to the level of individual users. Especially professionals like doctors or lawyers, managers, social welfare workers etc. And scientists at a congress or workshop nowadays have the choice as to whether they give priority to conference presentations or to engaging in more fruitful long distance calls.

The integration of informal private gatherings is similarly becoming precarious because it depends on the behavior of each participant as to whether intrusions from outside communications occur.

For instance, when three friends come together for dinner, each of them has to decide whether the hours spent together will remain undisturbed from any incoming calls. Finally, the cell phone can subvert traditional rules which demand that certain individuals should be spatially separated during specific periods in order to inhibit communicative contact and social relationships: Islamic settings, when monks isolate themselves in monasteries in order to facilitate a segregated life style characterized by prayer, chastity and contemplation; or when prison inmates or psychiatric patients are locked up in closed institutions so that they cannot do any harm.

For instance, while the traditional practice of keeping couples separated before marriage may still prevent the girls from becoming pregnant, it may no longer be effective to inhibit deeper intimacy based on private interpersonal communication. In her intercultural ethnographic study commissioned by Motorola, Sadie Plant has for instance found that. A British Asian woman described the many times she has spoken to her boyfriend under the cover of darkness, her bedclothes, and loud music.

The loss of centralized control is particularly manifest in the fact that organizers of meetings have diminishing power to decide about the size and composition of participants, because everybody can easily call others to join the gathering. But that was surely the mobile telephone because somebody heard about it and they called somebody they halfway knew and when they came, I had never seen them you know. Thus, while the hosts who organize the gatherings may control the initial composition by sending personal invitations , afterwards they lose control over the composition of the group.

In a very general way, cell phones introduce an element of entropy into all groups and institutions based on places or territories, because they permeate them with communicative relationships that transcend system boundaries in highly heterogeneous and unpredictable ways. Thus, the cell phone "can connect a theater-goer to anyone at all: In theoretical terms, this means that the conventional unity of the locational systems is eroding under the intrusion of many uncoordinated "person-based systems".

These are mostly bilateral microsocial relationships, which produce "chaos" mainly because they occur independently of each other and are opaque insofar as they cannot be observed or even controlled by any centralized agency. Thus, "the mapping between activities and places will dissolve, and everyplace will be for everything all the time.

Homes, churches or school buildings will of course continue to symbolize the unity of families, parishes or schools as organizations and institutions, but they may become "empty shells" without much determinative influence on what is "really going on" on the level of social communication and cooperation. As a consequence, the highly salient question arises: It seems evident that hardware factors have to be substituted by much softer media which allow for more fluid definitions and re-definitions of social resources, status distinctions, cooperation practices and normative structures:.

It is reasonable to assume that these developments will have an increasing impact on future architectural designs. First of all, architecture will become freed from many institutional constraints, so that buildings can be designed to satisfy non-institutional e.

Secondly , rooms will have to be designed to meet the needs of cell phone users e. Third, architects will have to provide for individual activities related to other roles and institutions e.

And fourth , buildings as well as settlements and whole urban structures will increasingly be designed to fulfill those "residual functions" which still demand spatial proximity and technically unmediated primary communication. To summarize, the mobile phone empowers individuals to decide on their own about the modalities of segregation or permeability between different institutional settings, social systems, interindividual relationships and individual roles.

As a consequence, such boundaries are likely to become much more fluid, modifiable and unpredictable than in the past and, especially, much more a matter of intentional decisions which risk being controversial and therefore have to be justified and legitimated among the different individual actors.

Analytically, the borders between institutional spheres e. Evidently, equal access to cell phone usage is highly incompatible with relatively closed and centrally controlled social structures which limit the privilege of unimpeded outside communication to a few elite members or even one single individual. In traditional families and heterosexual partnerships, for example, it is traditionally the prerogative of the male head to maintain such external connections, while the females are more oriented toward system-internal tasks.

In accordance with such deeply-anchored role patterns, studies of mixed pairs e. The aforementioned deregulation of system boundaries is most vividly manifested in the new uneasy relationship between private, semi-private and public spaces which is caused by the hardly controllable intrusiveness of mobile phone ringing and conversation.

Conventional communication media mass media as well as the fixed phone primarily had the capacity of empowering public agencies to intrude into private spheres.

Thus, norms had to be implemented in order to protect telephone subscribers from unsolicited e. Modern technologies like the internet and especially the cell phone have reversed this tendency by empowering individuals to carry their private messages into public space.

Contrary to a long term trend where public space increasingly became an empty container mainly used for private traffic purposes, the cell phone leads again to a more intensive use of public space for informal social interaction "third places". Restaurants, hotel lobbies, railway stations airports, supermarkets, and many other "polyvalent" places not committed to specific purposes become enriched with communicative behavior - to the disadvantage of offices and other spaces traditionally dedicated to specific social interactions Lasen a: Among other consequences, this implies that verbal messages not only fail to go along with nonverbal gestures, but also to be embedded in any "scenery" or "stage" contributing to their meanings and effects.

Given the lack of any facilitating and supporting environmental framework, making private calls in public presupposes a rather high tolerance. The traditional mode of civil inattention is primarily defined in a visual sense: Such visual distancing is highly viable for two reasons:. The mobile phone forces bystanders to enlarge the sphere of civil inattention to the audio level: Evidently, this is more difficult to implement because. Nevertheless, traditional norms of "sociofugality" provide individuals in public places with enough leeway to engage in undisturbed talks similar to those in one's own apartment:.

This example of civil inattention allows users to talk freely outdoors. The reluctance to engage in highly intimate talk in public is certainly least when talkers can be certain that all bystanders are unacquainted and unrelated, so that there is no risk that anybody listens too carefully or even tells to third people what he has overheard. Thus, we should expect high reluctance in smaller, densely-knit communities where such risks are much higher then in larger, completely anonymous urban settings Fortunati It is no surprise to find that during cell phone calls, individuals reinforce their social distance to others by various visible nonverbal gestures Murtagh Another typical example of body language in the three cities is the characteristic walk of mobile phone users in public places.

They stand and then walk slowly in circles or they pace a short distance back and forth. This walk is a kind of compromise between walking and standing still. Symmetrically, bystanders " look away, avoid eye contact with the phone user and pretend not to listen, even when the user asks them something related to the phone conversation.

An interesting development is the emergence of circumscribes public places where especially strict norms of "acoustic civil inattention" are in rule:.

Different people stop there, make a call and resume walking afterwards. In these places several persons are phoning, apparently unaware of others doing the same. Conversations in such zones tend to be short. Western culture is rather well disposed to cell phone usage, insofar as social norms do not forbid people to display private behavior in public. For instance, couples are not discouraged to kiss each other in public places. In addition, the rigid norms of civil inattention especially in Anglo-Saxon countries may also create a need for using the phone: As public life demands to keep distance to others e.

These factors are particularly problematic for the English, as we tend to be more reserved and socially inhibited than other cultures; we do not talk to strangers, or make friends quickly and easily. Thus, ethnographic observations have shown that "on the English commuter trains where the observations were undertaken you are more likely to hear phone conversations than face to face conversations.

Evidently, the blurring between public and private sphere is not accepted alike in all cultural settings. Even within Western Europe, there are pronounced differences in public use of cell phones: And in Japan, which is Western by many standards, cell phone use in public places is subject to rather rigid restrictions, because norms of mutual non-intrusion demand that a rather low noise level is maintained:.

Drivers do not honk in anger. Car alarms are silent. People do not shout. Strangers rarely talk; when the city bus driver shuts off his motor, as he does at each red light, there is a funereal silence. So the jangling of a phone is an excruciatingly intrusive offense, even if the ring has been replaced on today's programmable cell phones with, say, the sprightly theme song to the Astro Boy cartoon show.

On the other hand, the cell phone fits nicely into the traditions of Southern countries where much of daily living has always proceeded under the open sky. Thus, lengthy cell phone talks are quite common in Paris and Madrid where streets are typically used for idle strolling, while they are rare in London where pedestrians use public spaces only for efficient locomotion Lasen b: It may be speculated that high urban density and multiculturalism will promote restrictions of public cell phone usage in the future, because risks are increasing that at least some minorities will feel disturbed.

Thus, in contrast to most other e. It seems that the mobile is more at home in cultures which foster a relaxed attitude to issues of privacy and personal space, than it is in those which prioritize privacy.

On a more general level, it might be hypothesized that in the longer run, cell phone use will be subjected to similar tendencies of tightening social controls like many other innovations in public individual behavior e. Typically, such new forms of behavior are well tolerated in the beginning because their use is not yet so ubiquitous, because political actions for rule making and rule enforcement are in the initial stages, or because their negative impacts e.

As time goes on, however, complaints accumulate and take the more formal character of court suits or legislative procedures, while on an informal level new standards of morality and politeness emerge which make it rather easy to enforce formal rules. The impact of cell phone use on environments is very much reduced when text-based messages SMS instead of audio calls are used.

A major advantage of SMS lies in the fact that messages can be sent and received in a highly unobtrusive way, even when bystanders are quite close. In addition, SMS is compatible with conditions where phone calls are totally impossible: Thus, schools come under pressure to allow kids to use cell phones, because their parents are eager to keep in touch at any time whenever needed Mathews While in the past communicative isolation during school hours was easy to maintain because technology made external calls difficult anyway, such isolation now has to be actively produc ed and legitimated by providing convincing reasons, by exercising authority and by implementing potentially disputed measures of social control.

While audio calls may readily be repressed because they can be easily observed, it is much harder to prevent kids from receiving SMS messages during school hours Ling a.

Institutions lacking sufficient authority and controls will easily be destabilized by such waves of role diversion and informalization, so that their members can no longer be supposed to be focussing their full attention on formal role duties during the whole time of their physical presence in the institution.

On the other hand, institutions may draw on inputs from members not currently on duty: An interesting study for testing the impact of formality has been made in London and Birmingham, where cell phone behavior in more formal restaurant settings with tablecloth and table service and in an informal cafeteria environment without tablecloth and self-service was compared.

It was shown that in the formal environment, cell phone use is much more inhibited than in the informal settings:. This may be because tablecloths and the other trappings of more formal establishments are associated with a certain, more ritualized social activity - dining out - from which it may be felt that mobile phones and all their actual and potential interruptions should be excluded.

The presence of a waiter or waitress also brings more formal tables under a loose form of surveillance, and this may also tend to inhibit the use and display of mobiles in such contexts. It is highly interesting to note that such differences in behavior are based exclusively on implicit norms that are neither explicitly stated in terms of written rules, nor discussed or negotiated among the participants of social systems. Generally, the intrusive effects of cell phone calls are more akin to lower class culture settings e.

On the other hand, they collide very much with middle and higher-class settings e. The most general function of cell phones is to lessen the degree to which social relationships and social systems are anchored in space, and they increase the degree to which they are anchored in particular persons.

From the point of view of individual users, the cell phone provides opportunities:. From the point of view of social systems the cell phone will:. Confronting the two lists, it can well be argued that cell phones have a certain "subversive" capacity to shift the weights from dominant to the less powerful individuals and from formal institutions to informal social systems:. Instead, each individual now is burdened with the task of maintaining a difference between personal behavior and social roles, and with regulating the boundaries between different social relationships, groupings, organizations or institutions.

Therefore, the demand for social control will rise because, in a world where social differentiation can no longer be based on spatial segregation, it has to be increasingly secured by controlling individual behavior.

Will the mobile phone change society? On the one hand, it will certainly spread explosively because it fulfills so many needs which have remained unfulfilled, not only during the most recent periods of human history, but during the whole time of biological evolution. On the other hand, its functionality to complement or even substitute traditional no-tech communications will be limited by the basic fact that this same evolution has created deeply anchored needs for basing social interaction on spatial proximity at stable locations e.

Thirdly, it has to be considered that mobile phones are only capable of supporting highly decentralized network-like interactions, especially on the simple level of bilateral communications. Thus, older space-dependent interactions are still essential for supporting multilateral interaction fields, as well as more tightly integrated collectivities like communities and organizations.

Finally, the formulation of determinative causal propositions or even precise forecasts is severely hampered by the fact that, in sharp contrast to industrial machinery, cell phones like Personal Computers, PDA's etc. This is certainly different to older media like television, where the number of installed receivers is a good measure of the degree to which this technology has penetrated society and individual life.

By contrast, when technologies like cellular phones become ubiquitous, no certain conclusions referring to the actual changes in human communications patterns can be drawn. Instead, much extensive and sophisticated research is necessary in order to assess how they are actually used, how they affect various kinds of social relationships, and how they become embedded in the evermore complex sphere of all other communication media.

Of course, these indeterminacies increase to the degree that cellular phones assimilate more and more different functions: Another implication is that as individuals have a broader range of behavioral options at hand, the impact of psychological, social and cultural factors on such behavior is likely to be increased Davied et. Given the almost ubiquitous adoption of cell phones within and across current human societies and cultures, the most important question to ask is whether this universal diffusion is causing worldwide convergences and homogenization.

Most probably, the right answer is rather negative, because by supporting rather traditional and particularistic social settings, cell phones are more likely to accentuate differences rather than communalities between various population segments, social institutions or ethnic cultures.

Indeed, the mobile is remarkable for the diverse range of users and uses it attracts. It is uniquely adaptable, capable of playing many different roles, and able to make itself useful in a wide variety of cultural contexts, social worlds and individual lives.

As its use spreads, so it will continue to diversify instabilities as traditional structures of employment, family, community, and cultural life are disrupted. The mobile encourages such movements, and helps to repair the connections they may break. As studies on the level of family and kin networks have shown, the cell phone becomes readily assimilated by almost every collectivity without effecting any significant longer-term change on the level of structures or cultural patterns.

Once the novelty has worn off the family resumes their normal activities, their normal ways of behaving with each other and the outside world. The introduction of a new technology into the home doesn't challenge their existing ways of relating to each other. It becomes part of their everyday routines. It doesn't challenge who does the dishes, who takes charge of childcare, and who takes out the rubbish. It doesn't change the relationships members want to have with others.

In fact it is more likely to reinforce the family's values and activities. Understandably, social and cultural factors have more impact on the interactional and social-institutional uses of the new media, while the psychological variables are important in shaping the more private uses. This regularity is vividly illustrated by the empirical study of Davied et al, which shows that social class factors are much better able to explain the business-related uses of new media than the uses in the realm of entertainment.

Or expressed in a third way: New communication technologies make it easier to translate psycho-sociocultural dispositions directly into overt behavior, by reducing - or even eliminating - many obstacles and distortions which have hitherto contributed to a weakening of these empirical relations. Contexts of Awareness in Computing. Human-Computer Interaction, 16 Introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity. The Family in the Networked Society: A Summary of Research on the American Family.

An Investigation of Mobile Phone Use: Anti-Globalization - A Spreading Phenomenon. Report Nr 8, August Economy, Society, and Culture. Three volumes , Oxford: Lifesavers and cellular Samaritans: Social Theory in the Wireless World. University of Surrey, April 7. The Distaff Papers, Australia. Boston, College Law School.

Studding Text Messaging in Teenagers. Understanding User, Adoption and Design, Colorado. The Effects on Family and Community.

A Social History of the Telephone to University of CA Press. New Social Categories and Relations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp.

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